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On this page: P Aerisades – Paedaritus – Paeon – Paeonia – Paeonius – Paetinus – Paetus

PAERISADES.

Paean was transferred to the song dedicated to him, that is, to hymns chanted to Apollo for the purpose of averting an evil, and to warlike songs, which were sung before or during a battle. [L. S.]

PAEDARITUS. [pedaritus.]

PAEON (Ilctfaj/), of Amathus, wrote an ac­count of Theseus and Ariadne, referred to by Plu­tarch (Thes. 20).

2. A son of Antilochus, and grandson of Nestor. (Paus. ii. 18. § 7.)

3. A son of Endymion, and brother of Epems, Aetolus, and Eurycyde ; from whom the district of Paeonia, on the Axius in Macedonia, was be­ lieved to have derived its name. (Paus. v. 1. § 2, &c.) [L. S.]

PAEON (HatW). 1. A son of Poseidon by Ilelle, who fell into the Hellespont. In some legends he was called Edonus. (Hygin. Poet. Astr. ii. 20.)

PAEONIA (naiw^ia), i. e. the healing goddess, was a surname of Athena, under which she had a statue at Athens, and an altar in the temple of Amphiaraus at Oropus. (Paus. i. 2. § 4, 34, § 2.) [L. S.]

PAEONIUS, instructed the two young Ciceros, Marcus and Quintus. in rhetoric, b. c. 54 (Cic. ad Qu.Fr. iii. 3. §4).

PAEONIUS (Uaidvios). L Of Ephesus, an architect, whose time is uncertain ; most probably he lived between b.c. 420 and 380. In con­junction with Demetrius, he finally completed the great temple of Artemis, at Ephesus, which Cher-siphron had begun [chersiphron] ; and, with Duphnis the Milesian, he began to build at Miletus a temple of Apollo, of the Ionic order. (Vitruv. vii. Praef. § 16.) The latter was the famous Didymaeum, or temple of Apollo Didymus, the ruins of which are still to be seen near Miletus. The former temple, in which the Bran-chidae had an oracle of Apollo (from which the place itself obtained the name of Branchidae), was burnt at the capture of Miletus by the army of Dareius, b. c. 498. (Herod, vi. 19 ; see Bahr's Note.) The new temple, which was on a scale only inferior to that of Artemis, was never finished. It was dipteral, decastyle, hypaethral: among its extensive ruins two columns are still standing. (Strab. xiv. p. 634 ; Paus. vii. 5. § 4 ; Chandler, p. 151; Ionian Antiq. vol. i. c. 3. p. 27 ; Hirt, GescJi. d. Baukunst, vol. ii. p. 62, and pi. ix. x.)

2. Of Mende, in Thrace, a statuary and sculptor, of whom we have but little information, but whose celebrity may be judged of from the fact, that he executed the statues in the pediment of the front portico of the temple of Zeus at Olympia, those in the pediment of the portico of the opisthodomus being entrusted to Alcamenes (Paus. v. 10). He also made the bronze statue of Nike, which the Messenians of Naupactus dedicated at Olympia. (Paus. x. 26. § 1.) He must have flourished about the 86th Olympiad, b.c. 435. (See further, Sillig, Catal. Art. s.v.; Miiller, Arch'dol de Kunst, § 112. n. 1. § 119, n. 2.) [P. S.]

P AERISADES or PARFSADES (noipunfoijj or IIaptflra8?]s). The latter form is the more common: but the former, which is that used by Strabo, is confirmed by the evidence of coins.

1. A king of Bosporus, son of Leucon, suc­ceeded his brother Spartacus in b.c. 349, and reigned thirty-eight years. (Diod. xvi. 52.) No events of

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PAETUS.

his reign have been transmitted to us, except that we find him at one period (apparently about b. c. 333) engaged in a war with the neighbouring Scythians (Dem. c. Pliorm. p. 909), and he appears to have continued the same friendly relations with the Athenians which were begun by his father Leucon. (Id. ib. p. 917.) But we are told, in general terms, that he was a mild and equitable ruler, and was so much beloved by his subjects as to obtain divine honours after his death. (Strab. vii. p. 310.) He left three sons, Satyrus, Eumelus and Prytanis. (Diod. xx. 22.)

He is probably the same person as the Biri-sades mentioned by Deinarchus (c. Dem. p. 95), to whom Demosthenes had proposed that a statue should be erected at Athens. (See Wesseling ad Diod. xiv. 93 ; Clinton, F. H. vol. ii. p. 284.)

2. Son of Satyrus, and grandson of the pre­ceding. He was the only one of the children of Satyrus who escaped from the designs of his uncle Eumelus, and took refuge at the court of Agarus king of Scythia, b.c. 308. (Diod. xx. 24.)

3. A second king of Bosporus, and the last monarch of the first dynasty that ruled in that country. He was probably a descendant of No. 1, but the history of the kingdom of Bosporus, during the period previous to his reign, is wholly lost. We only know that the pressure of the Scythian tribes from without, and their constantly increasing demands of tribute, which he was unable to resist, at length induced Paerisades voluntarily to cede his sovereignty to Mithridates the Great. (Strab. vii. pp. 309, 310.) The date of this event is wholly unknown, but it cannot be placed earlier than b.c. 112, nor later than b. c. 88. It is uncertain whether an anecdote related by Polyaenus (vii. 37) refers to this Pae­ risades or to No. 1. [E. H. B.]

PAETINUS, a lengthened form of Paetus [paetus], like Albinus of Albus, wras a family name of the Fulvia Gens. It superseded the family name of Curvus, of which it was originally an ag­nomen, and was superseded in its turn by the name of Nobilior.

1. M. fulvius curvus paetinus, consul b. c. 305. [fulvius, No. 2.]

2. M. fulvius paetintus, consul b. c. 299 with T. Manlius Torquatus. (Liv. x. 9.)

3. ser. fulvius paetinus nobilior, consul b.c. 255. [nobilior, No. 1.]

PAETUS, a cognomen in many Roman gentes, was indicative, like many other Roman cognomens, of a bodily defect or peculiarity ; as for instance, Capita, Pronto, Naso, Varus, &c. It signified a person who had a slight cast in the eye, and is ac­cordingly classed by Pliny with the word Strabb (H. N. xi. 37. s. 55); but that it did not indicate such a complete distortion of vision as the latter word is clear from Horace, who describes a father calling a son that was Strabo by the name of Pae­tus, when he wished to extenuate the defect (Sat. i. 3. 45). Indeed, the slight cast implied in the word Paetus was considered attractive rather than otherwise, and we accordingly find it given as an epithet to Venus. (Ov. Ar. Am. ii. 659 ; Auctor, Priapeia, 36).

PAETUS, AE'LIUS. The Paeti were the most ancient family of the Aelia gens, and some of them were celebrated for their knowledge of the Roman law. See below.

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