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94 PALLADAS.

The name of Palicanus, written with a &, pali kanvs, occurs on several coins of the Lollia gens. The specimen, given on the preceding page, has on the obverse the head of Liberty, and on the reverse the Rostra in the forum. (Eckhel, vol. v. p. 236.) PA'LICUS (IlaAiKos), commonly found in the plural Palici, IlaAi/cof, were Sicilian daemons, twin- sons of Zeus and the nymph Thaleia, the daughter of Hephaestus. Sometimes they are called sons of Hephaestus by Aetna, the daughter of Oceanus. Thaleia, from fear of Hera, desired to be swallowed up by the earth ; this was done, but in due time she sent forth from the earth twin boys, who were called IlaAi/fol, from rov 7raAu> iKeffOai. They were worshipped in the neighbourhood of mount Aetna, near Palice ; and in the earliest times hu­ man sacrifices were offered to them. Their sanc­ tuary was an asylum for runaway slaves, and near it there gushed forth from the earth two sulphureous springs, called Deilloi, or brothers of the Palici; at which solemn oaths were taken, the oaths being written on tablets and thrown into one of the wells. If the tablet swam on the water, the oath was considered to be true, but if it sank down, the oath was regarded as perjury, which was believed to be punished instantaneously by blindness or death. (Steph. Byz. s. v. IIaAuc?7 ; Aristot. MirabiL Aus- cult. 58 ; Diod. xi. 89 ; Strab. vi. p. 275 ; Cic. De, Nat. Deor. iii. 22 ; ;Virg. Aen. ix. 585, with the note of Servius ; Ov. Met. v. 406 ; Macrob. Sat. v. 19.) [L. S.]

PALINURUS (Ua\ivovpos\ the son of Jasus, and helmsman of Aeneas. The god of Sleep in the disguise of Phorbas approached him, sent him to sleep at the helm, and then threw him down into the sea. (Virg. Aen. v. 833, &c.) In the lower world he saw Aeneas again, and related to him that on the fourth day after his fall, he was thrown by the waves "on the coast of Italy and there murdered, and that his body was left unburied on the strand. The Sibyl prophesied to him, that by the command of an oracle his death should be atoned for, that a tomb should be erected to him, and that a cave (Palinurus, the modern Punta della Spartivento) should be called after him. (Virg. Aen. vi. 337, &c. ; Strab. vi. p. 252.) [L. S.]

PALLADAS (HaAAaSas), the author of a large number of epigrams in the Greek Anthology, which some scholars consider the best in the col­lection, while others regard them as almost worth­less: their real characteristic is a sort of elegant mediocrity. Almost all that we know of the poet is gathered from the epigrams themselves.

In the Vatican MS. he is called an Alexandrian. With regard to his time, he is mentioned by Tzetzes between Proclus and Agathias (Proleg. ad Lycoph. p. 285, Miiller); but a more exact indi­cation is furnished by one of his epigrams (No. 115), in which he speaks of Hypatia, the daughter of Theon, as still alive: now Hypatia was mur­dered in a.d. 415. [hypatia]. He was a gram­marian ; but at some period he renounced the pro­fession, which he complains that his poverty had compelled him to follow: a quarrelsome wife afforded him another subject of bitter complaint in his verses (Epig. 41—46 ; comp. 9, 14). The question has been raised whether he was a Chris­tian or a heathen ; but his epigrams leave little doubt upon the subject. To say nothing of a caustic distich on the number of the monks, which a Christian might very well have written (Ep. 84),

PALLADIUM.

there is another epigram, the irony of which is manifest, in which he refers to statues of heathen deities being rescued from destruction by their conversion into the images of Christian saints, an important testimony, by the way, to the practice referred to (Paralip. e Cod. Vat. No. 67., vol. xiii. p. 661, Jacobs; it is worthy of remark that the title is rictAAaSa rov ^uerecopoy). But the clearest proof that he was not a Christian is furnished by his bitter epigram on the edict of Theodosius for the destruction of the pagan temples and idols (No. 70), the tone of which, and the reference of the last three lines, especially the middle one, it is impossible to mistake : —

coupes ec

fc%oz/res

yap irvra vvv r irpy/j.ara.

Of the 147 epigrams in Brunck's Analecta (vol. ii. pp. 406 — 438), the 22nd is ascribed in the Va­tican MS. to Lucian, and the 33rd to Rarus (but to Palladas in the Planudean Anthology) : on the other hand, there are to be added to the number, on the authority of the Vatican MS., the one which stands under the name of Themistius (Brunck, Anal. vol. ii. p. 404), the 96th of Lu-cillius (Ib. p. 337), the 442nd of the anonymous epigrams (Anal. vol. iii. p. 245), and those num­bered 67, 112—115, 132, and 206, in the Parali-pomcna e Codice Vaticano. (Jacobs, Anih. Grace. vol. iii. pp. 49, 112, 114 — 145, vol. iv. p. 212, vol. xiii. pp. 661, 687—689, 699, 741, 927, 928 ; Fabric. Bill. Graec. vol. iv. pp. 485, 486.) [P. S.]

PALLADIUM (IlaAAaSio*/), is properly an image of Pallas Athena, but generally an ancient one, which was kept hidden and secret, and was revered as a pledge of the safety of the town or place where it existed. Among these ancient images of Pallas none is more celebrated than the Trojan Palladium, concerning which there was the following tradition. Athena was brought up by Triton ; and his daughter, Pallas, and Athena once were wrestling together for the sake of exercise. Zeus interfered in the struggle, and suddenly held the aegis before the face of Pallas. Pallas, while looking up to Zeus, was wounded by Athena, and died. Athena in her sorrow caused an image of the maiden to be made, round which she hung the aegis, and which she placed by the side of the image of Zeus. Subsequently when Electra, after being dishonoured, fled to this image, Zeus threw it down from Olympus upon the earth. It came down at Troy, where Ilus, who had just been praying to the god for a favourable omen for the building of the city, took it up, and erected a sanc­tuary to it. According to some, the image was dedicated by Electra, and according to others it was given by Zeus to Dardanus. The image itself is said to have been three cubits in height, its legs close together, and holding in its right hand a spear, and in the left a spindle and a distaff. (Apollod, iii. 12. § 3 ; Schol. ad Eurip. Orest. 1129 ; Dio-nys. i. 69.) This Palladium remained at Troy until Odysseus and Diomedes contrived to carry it away, because the city could not be taken so long as it was in the possession of that sacred treasure. (Conon, Narr. 34 ; Virg. Aen. ii. 164, &c.) Ac­cording to some accounts Troy contained two Pal­ladia, one of which was carried off by Odysseus and Diomedes, and the other carried by Aeneas to Italy, or the one taken by the Greeks was a

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