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the Thebans, are represented as sending this as­sistance. See Thirl wall, Hist, of Greece, vol. v. p. 287, note.)

When Artabazus revolted against Ochus, Pam-menes led a body of 5000 Thebans to the aid of the former, and overcame the forces of the king in two great battles. (Diod. xvi. 34). But Artabazus, suspecting that he was intriguing with his enemies, arrested him, and handed him over to his brothers, Oxythras and Dibictus. (Polyaen. vii. 33. § 2. Some of the stratagems of Pammenes are described by Polyaenus, v. 16.)

Pammenes is spoken of as being greatly addicted to that paederastia which was the disgrace of Greece. It is difficult to say what degree of credit should be attached to the story, that, while Philip was under the charge of Pammenes, the latter main­tained an illicit connection with the young prince. (Plut. Sympos. p. 6'18, d, Erotic, c. 17 ; Liban. Or at. in Aeschin. p. 702, d.)

3. An Athenian rhetorician, a contemporary of Cicero, who calls him by far the most eloquent man in Greece. He was a great admirer of De­mosthenes, whose speeches he commended to the attention of his pupils. M. Brutus studied under him. (Cic. Brut. 97, Orat. c. 30.) It is probably another Pammenes, of whom we know nothing, who is mentioned by Cic. ad Att. v. 20. § 10, vi. 2. §10.)^

4. A citharoedus, who flourished in the time of Caligula, and was distinguished enough to have statues erected in his honour. When Nero made his musical expedition into Greece, Pammenes, though an old man, was one of those with whom he contended, as it appears, simply that he might have the pleasure of insulting his statues. (Dion Cass. Ixiii. 8.) [C. P. M,]

PAMPHILA (Ua^iX-n), a female historian of considerable reputation, who lived in the reign of Nero. According to Suidas she was an Epidaurian (s. v. IlajU^iArj), but Photius (God. 175) describes her as an Egyptian by birth or descent: the two statements, however, may be reconciled by sup­posing that she was a native of Epidaurus, and that her family came from Egypt. She related in the preface to her work, for an account of which we are indebted to Photius (7. c.), that, during the thirteen years she had lived with her husband, from whom she was never absent for a single hour, she was constantly at work upon her book, and that she diligently wrote down whatever she heard from her husband and from the many other learned men who frequented their house, as well as what­soever she herself read in books. Hence we can account for the statement of Suidas, that some authorities ascribed her work to her husband. The name of her husband is differently stated. In cue passage Suidas (s. v. najU^iATj), speaks of her as the daughter of Soteridas and the wife of Socra-tidas, but in another passage he describes her (s. v. 2wT7?pi5as) as the wife of Soteridas. The pas­sage in Photius (cod. 161, p. 103, a., 35, ed. Bek-ker), where we read e/c twv Sco-njpfSa Tlafj.<f>i\Trjs «ttito^cw/, leaves the question undecided, as So­teridas may there indicate either the father or the husband.

The principal work of Pamphila is cited by various names ; sometimes simply as uTroju^^aTa, and at other times as ^Tro/uj/afjuara iaropiKd, but its full title seems to have been the one which is pre­served by Photius, namely,


X6yoi. The latter title gives a ge­neral idea of the nature of its contents, which are still further characterised by Photius. The work was not arranged according to subjects or according to any settled plan, but it was more like a common­place book, in which each piece of information was set down as it fell under the notice of the writer, who stated that she believed this variety would give greater pleasure to the reader. Photius con­siders the work as one of great use, and supplying important information on many points in history and literature. The estimation in which it was held in antiquity is shown, not only by the judg­ment of Photius, but also by the references to it in the works of A. Gellius and Diogenes Laertius, who appear to have availed themselves of it to a considerable extent. Modern scholars are best ac­quainted with the name of Pamphila, from a state­ment in her work, preserved by A. Gellius (xv. 23), by which is ascertained the year of the birth of Hellanicus, Herodotus, and Thucydides respectively. [herodotus, p. 431, b.] But this account, though received by most scholars, is rejected by Krliger, in his life of Thucydides (p. 7), on account of the little confidence that can be placed in PamphnVs authority. The history of Pamphila was divided into many books. Photius speaks only of eightj but Suidas says that it consisted of thirty-three. The latter must be correct, since we find A. Gellius quoting the eleventh (xv. 23) and twenty-ninth (xv. 17), and Diogenes Laertius the twenty-fifth (iii. 23) and thirty-second (v. 36). Perhaps no more than eight books were extant in the time of Photius. The work is likewise referred to by Diogenes Laertius in other passages (i. 24, 68, 76, 90, 98, ii. 24). Comp. Vossius, De Historicis Graecis, p. 237, ed. Westermann.

Besides the history already mentioned, Pam­phila wrote several other works, the titles of which are given by Suidas. 1 . An Epitome of Ctesias, in three books. 2. Epitomes of histories and of other works, eTnro^al laropiwv re Kal erepwv /3t£Aia>j/, from which work Sopater appears to have drawn his materials (Phot. cod. 161, p. 103). It is, how­ever, not impossible that this work is the same as the UTro/uz/T^ara, and that Suidas has confounded the two. 3. Ilepi d^iffS'rjT^o'euv. 4. Ilepl d(j>po-

PAMPHFLIDAS (na^tAi'Sas), a Rhodian, who was appointed together with Eudamus to command the Rhodian fleet in the war against Antiochus, after the defeat and death of Pausis- tratus, b. c. 190. [pausistratus.] He was a man of a prudent and cautious character, and in the conference held by the Roman general, L. Ae- milius Regillus, at Elaea, inclined to the side of peace. Shortly after he was despatched, together with Eudamus, to watch for and encounter the fleet which Hannibal was about to bring from Phoenicia to the support of Antiochus. The two fleets met off Side in Pamphylia, and the Rhodians were victorious ; but dissensions between Pam- philidas and his colleague in the command pre­ vented the victory from being as decisive as it might otherwise have proved. After this action Pamphilidas was detached with a small squad­ ron to carry on naval operations on the coast of Syria ; this is the last mention that occurs of his name. (Polyb. xxi. 5, 8 ; Liv. xxxvii. 22 — 24, 25.) [E.H.B.]

PAMPHILUS (Ila^iAos), literary. 1. A

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