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chieftains, their proper places in the picture,although we cannot easily assign those places: this Bbttiger himself has seen in the case of Echetlus ; and the apparition of Theseus rising out of the earth would no doubt be connected with the opening of the battle.

Another question arises, how the individual chieftains were identified. The expression of Pliny, iconicos duces, can hardly be accepted in the sense of actual likenesses of the chieftains ; for, to say nothing of the difficulty of taking likenesses of the Persian chieftains, the time at which Pa-naenus lived excludes the supposition that he could have taken original portraits of Miltiades and the other leaders, nor have we any reason to believe that the art of portrait painting was so far advanced in their time, as that Panaenus could have had portraits of them to copy from. The true meaning seems to be that this was one of the earliest pictures in which an artist rejected the ancient plan (which we still see on vases, mir­rors, &c.) of affixing to his figures the names of th& persons they were intended to represent, and yet succeeded in indicating who they were by some other method, such as by an exact imitation of their arms and dresses (which may very probably have been preserved), or by the representation of their positions and their well-known exploits. This explanation is confirmed by the passages already cited respecting Callimachus and Cynaegeirus, and still more strikingly by a passage of Aeschines (c. Cles. p. 437), who tells us that Miltiades re­quested the people that his name might be in­scribed on this picture, but they refused his request, and, instead of inserting his name, only granted him the privilege of being painted stand­ing first and exhorting the soldiers. (Comp. Nepos, Milt. 6.) We learn from an allusion in Persius (iii. 53) that the Medes were represented in their proper costume. Some writers ascribe parts of this picture to Micon and Polygnotus, but it was most probably the work of Panaenus alone. (Bottiger, Arch. d. Malerei, p. 251).

Pliny, moreover, states that Panaenus painted the roof of the temple of Athena at Elis with a mixture of milk and saffron, and also that he painted the shield of the statue of the goddess, made by Colotes, in the same temple. (Plin. II. cc.; Bottiger, Arch. d. Malerei^ p. 243.)

During the time of Panaenus, contests for prizes in painting were established at Corinth and Delphi, that is, in the Isthmian and Pythian games, and Panaenus himself was the first who engaged in one of these contests, his antagonist being Timagoras of Chalcis, who defeated Panaenus at the Pythian games, and celebrated his victory in a poem. ( Plin. H. N. xxxv. 9. s. 35.)

Panaenus has been called the Cimabue of ancient painting (Bottiger, /. c. p. 242), but the title is very inappropriate, as he had already been preceded by Polygnotus, Micon, and Dionysius of Colophon, who, though his contemporaries, were considerably older than him.

His name is variously spelt in the MSS., TldvaivoS) and Tldvraivos, but is the true reading. (See Siebenkees, ad Strab. vol. iii. p. 129.) [P. S.]

PANAETIUS (ncw/amos), historical. 1. Ty­rant of Leontini. He was the first who raised himself to power in that way in Sicily. The government of Leontini up to that time had been


oligarchical (Arist. PoUi. v. 10.) The occasion which Panaetius seized for making himself tyrant arose out of a war with Megara, in which he was created general. The oligarchs had carefully pre­vented the commonalty from being on a par with themselves in point of military equipment. Panae­tius, under the pretence of a review, found an opportunity for making an attack upon the oligarchs when they were unarmed: a considerable number were in this way cut to pieces. Panaetius then, with the aid of his partizans, seized the city, and made himself tyrant, b. c. 608. (Polyaen. Stmtey. v. 47 ; Euseb. Arm. v. anno 1408 ; Clinton, F. ff. vol. i. anno 608.)

2. A native of Tenos, the son of Sosimenes. He commanded a vessel of the Tenians which ac­companied the armament of Xerxes in his invasion of Greece, but apparently by compulsion ; for just before the battle of Salamis, Panaetius with his ship deserted and joined the Greeks,* fortunately just in time to confirm the intelligence of the move­ments of the Persian fleet which had been brought by Aristides, but which the Greeks at first could hardly believe. On account of this service the Tenians were recorded on the tripod set up at Delphi amongst those who had aided in destroying the forces of the barbarians. (Herod, viii. 81 ; Plut. Themist. p. 118. e.).

3. The name Panaetius occurs in the list of those who were accused by Andromachus of having been concerned in the mutilation of the Hermes- busts at Athens. He, with the rest so charged, excepting Polystratus, escaped, and was condemned to death in his absence. There is also a person of the name of Panaetius, who, for aught that appears to the contrary, was the same person, and one of the four whose names were added by Andocides to the list of Teucer. (Andoc. de Myst. p. 7, 26, ed. Reiske). [C. P. M.]

PANAETIUS (Uavainos], son of Nicagoras, descended from a family of long-standing celebrity, was born in the island of Rhodes (Suid. s. v.; Strab. xiv. p. 968). He is said to have been a pupil of the grammarian Crates, who taught in Pergainum (Strab. xiv. p. 993, c.), and after that to have betaken himself to Athens, and there attached himself principally to the stoic Diogenes, of Babylon, and his disciple Antipater of Tarsus (Suid. s. v. ; Cic. de Divin. i. 3). He also availed himself at Athens of the instruction of the learned Periegete Polemo, according to Van Lynden's very probable emendation of the' words of Suidas (s. h. v. Comp. Van Lynden, Disputatio Historico-criiica de Panae.tio Rhodio, Lugd. Batav. 1802, p. 36, &c.). Probably through Laelius, who had attended the instructions, first of the Babylonian Diogenes, and then of Panaetius (Cic. de Fin. ii. 8), the latter was introduced to the great P. Scipio Aemi-lianus, and, like Polybius before him (Suid. ?. v. Havairios, comp. s. v. IIoAyg/os-, and Van Lynden, p. 40, &c.), gained his friendship (Cic. de Fin. iv. 9, de Off. i. 26, de Amic. 5. 27, comp. Muren. 31), and accompanied him on the embassy which he undertook, two years after the conquest of Carthage, to the kings of Egypt and Asia in alliance with Rome (Veil. Pat. i. 13. § 3 ; Cic. Acad. ii. 2 ; Plut. Apoplith. p. 200, e.; comp. Moral. p. 777, a.). Panaetius appears to have spent the latter part of his life in Athens, after the death of Antipater, as head of the stoic school (Cic. de Divin. i. 3); at all events he died in Athens (Suid. s.v.}

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