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head of Apollo, and on the reverse Pallas in a chariot drawn by four horses ; it is supposed by Eckhel more ancient than the time of the consul, and is therefore referred by him to the father or grandfather of the latter. The next two coins belong to the consul. The former bears on the obverse the head of Bacchus, and on the reverse Ceres in a chariot drawn by two dragons: the latter has on the obverse a youthful head, and on the reverse Ceres with a torch in each of her hands and with a pig by her side. (Eckhel, vol. v. p. 339.)
PANTACLES (narrctxA^s), an Athenian, im mortalized by Aristophanes as a pre-eminently stupid man, who, preparing to conduct a procession, put on his helmet before he fixed the crest to it. He was ridiculed also for his stupidity by Eupolis in the Xpvvovv ysvos. (Arist. Ran. 1034 ; Schol. ad loc. ; comp. Meineke, Fragm. Com. Graec. vol. i. p. 145, ii. p. 544.) [E. E.]
PANTAENUS (H&vrcuvos), the favourite preceptor of Clemens Alexandrinus. Of what country he was originally, is uncertain. Cave endeavours to reconcile the various accounts by conjecturing that he was of Sicilian parentage, but that he was born in Alexandria. In this city he \vas undoubtedly educated, and embraced the principles of the stoical school of philosophy. We do not find it mentioned who the parties were that instructed him in the truths of Christianity, but we learn from Photius (Cod. 1 i 8) that he was taught by those who had seen the Apostles, though his statement that he had heard some of the Apostles themselves justly appears to Cave chronologically impossible. About a. d. 181, he had acquired such eminence that he was appointed master of the catechetical school in Alexandria, an office which he discharged with great reputation for nine or ten years. At this time the learning and piety of Pantaenus suggested him as a proper person to conduct a missionary enterprise to India. Of his success there we know nothing. But we have a singular story regarding it told by St. Jerome. It is said that he found in India a copy of St. Matthew's Gospel, written in Hebrew, which had been left bv St. Bartholomew, and that
he brought it back with him to Alexandria. He probably resumed his place in the catechetical school, which had been filled during his absence by his pupil and friend Clemens. The persecution under Severus, A. d. 202, drove both Pantaenus and Clemens into Palestine ; but that he resumed vol. n l
his labours before his death appears from an expression of Eusebius (H. E. v. 10), t€\€vtwv ijys'iTai. We do not know the exact date of his death, but it cannot have been prior to a. d. 21.1, as he lived to the time of Caracalla. His name has a place in the calendar of the Roman Church, on the seventh of July. He was succeeded by Clemens Alexandrinus. This, with some other points, has been disputed by Dodwell (ad Irenaeum, p. 501, &c.), who makes Pantaenus to be not the predecessor, but the successor of Clemens. He was a man of much eloquence, if we may trust the opinion of Clemens, who calls him a Sicilian bee.
Both Eusebius and Jerome speak of his writings, the latter mentioning his Commentaries on the Scriptures, but we have not even a fragment of them. Cave states that he is numbered by Ana-stasius of Sinai amongst the commentators who referred the six days1 work of the Creation to Christ and the Church. (Fabric. Bill. Graec. vol. iii. p. 569 ; Cave, Apostolici, p. 127, &c., Plist. Lit. vol. i. p. 81,&c.; Euseb. H. E. v. 10.) [W.M.G.]
PANTALEON (HavTaAeW), historical. 1. A son of Alyattes, king of Lydia, by an Ionian woman. His claim to the throne in preference to his brother Croesus was put forward by his partisans during the lifetime of Alyattes, but that monarch decided in favour of Croesus. (Herod, i. 92.)
2. Son of Omphalion, was king or tyrant of Pisa in Elis at the period of the 34th Olympiad (b. c. 644), assembled an army, with which he made himself master of Olympia, and assumed by force the sole presidency of the Olympic games on that occasion. The Eleans on this account would not reckon this as one of the regular Olympiads. (Pans. vi. 21. §1,22. §2.) We learn also from Strabo that Pantaleon assisted the Messenians in the second Messenian war (Strab. viii. p. 362), which, according to the chronology of Pausanias, followed by Mr. Clinton, must have been as much as thirty years before ; but C. 0. Miiller and Mr. Grote regard the intervention of Pantaleon as furnishing the best argument for the real date of the war in question. (Clinton, F. H. vol. i. p. 188 ; Mailer's Dorians, vol. i. p. 171 ; Crete's Greece, vol. ii. p. 574.)
4. An Aetolian, one of the chief citizens and political leaders of that people, who was the principal author of the peace and alliance concluded by the Aetolians with Aratus and the Achaeans, b. c. 239. (Plut. Arat. 33.) He was probably the same as the father of Archidamus, mentioned by Poly-bius (iv. 57).
5. An Aetolian, probably a grandson of the preceding, is first mentioned as one of the ambassadors charged to bear to the Roman general, M. Acilius Glabrio, the unqualified submission of the Aetolians, b.c. 191. (Polyb. xx. 9.) Again, in b. c. 169 he appears as one of the deputies at Thermus before C. Popillius, when he uttered a violent harangue against Lyciscusand Thoas. (Id. xxviii. 4.) He is also mentioned as present with Eu-menes at Delphi, when the life of that monarch was attempted by the emissaries of Perseus. On this occasion he is termed by Livy '•* Aetoiiae princeps." (Liv. xlii. 15.)
6. A king of Bactria; or rather perhaps of the