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23—31 ; Oros. iv. 13 ; Eutrop. iii. 5 ; Zonar. viii. 20 ; Flor. ii. 4 ; Appian, Celt. 2.)
Aemilius Papus was censor b. c. 220, with C. Flaminius, two years before the breaking out of the second Punic War. In the census of that year there were 270,213 citizens. (Liv. Epit. 20, xxiii. 22.) In B. c. 216 Papus was one of the triumviri, who were appointed in that year on account of the dearth of money. (Liv. xxiii. 23).
5. L. aemilius papus, praetor B. c. 205, obtained Sicily as his province. It was under this Aemilius Papus that C. Octavius, the great-grandfather of the emperor Augustus, served in Sicily. (Liv. xxviii. 38 ; Suet. Aug. 2.) [octavius, No. 12.] The L. Aemilius Papus-, decemvir sa-crorum, who died in b. c. 171, is probably the same person as the preceding, (Liv. xlii. 28.)
PAPYLUS, ST. (n&ruAos), sometimes called Papirius, a physician, born at Thyatira in Lydia, of respectable parents, who was ordained deacon by St. Carpus, in the second century after Christ. He was put to death by the praefect Valerius, together with his sister Agathonice and many others, aftei being cruelly tortured, in or about the year 166. An interesting account of his martyrdom is given in the "Acta Sanctorum," taken chiefly from Simeon Metaphrastes. His memory is celebrated by the Romish church on the 13th of April. (See ActaSanctor. April, vol. ii. p. 120, &c. ; Bzovius, Nomencl. Sanctor. Profess. Medicor.; C. B. Carpzovius, De Medidsab Ecdes.pro Sanctis habitis, and the authors there referred to.) [W. A. G.]
PARA, king of Armenia. [arsacidae, p. 364, a.]
PARALUS (IlapaAos). 1. The younger of the two legitimate sons of Pericles. He and his brother were educated by their father with the greatest care, but they both appear to have been of inferior capacity, which was anything but compensated by worth of character, though Paralus seems to have been a somewhat more hopeful youth than his brother. Both of them got the nickname of B\irro/uLaafjLas. Both Xanthippus and Paralus fell victims to the plague b. c. 429. (Pint. Pericl. 24, 36, de Consolat. p. 118, e. ; Plat. Alcib. i. p. 118, e., with the scholiast on the passage, Prolog, p. 319, e.; Athen. xi. p. 505, 506.)
2. A friend of Dion of Syracuse [DioN], who was governor of Minoa under the Carthaginians at the time when Dion landed in Sicily and gained possession of Syracuse. See Vol. I. p. 1028. (Diod. xvi. 9.) [C. P. M.J
PARDUS, GREGORIUS or GEORGIUS (Tpyyopios s. Ttwpyios IlapSos), archbishop of Corinth, on which ^account he is~ called in some MSS. georgius (or gregorius) corinth us (KopwOos), and, by an error of the copyist, cori-thus (Kopidpv, in Gen.) and corutus (Kopurou, in Gen.), or corytus, a Greek writer on grammar of uncertain date. The only clue that we have to the period in which he lived is a passage in an unpublished work of his, De Conslructione Orationis, in which he describes Georgius Pisida [georgius, No. 44], Nicolaus Callicles, andTheo-dorus Prodromus as " more recent writers of Iambic verse." Nicolaus and Theodoras belong to the reign of Alexius I. Comnenus (a. d. 1081—1118), and therefore Pardus must belong to a still later
period ; but his vague use of the term "more recent," as applied to writers of such different periods as the seventh and eleventh or twelfth centuries, precludes us from determining how near to the reign of Alexius he is to be placed. It was long supposed that Corinthus was his name ; but Allatius, in his Diatriba de Georgiis, pointed out that Pardus was his name and Corinthus that of his see ; on his occupation of which he appears to have disused his name and designated himself by his bishopric.
His only published work is Uepl SiaheKrwv, De Dialectis. It was first published with the Erotemata of Demetrius Chalcondylas and of Mos- chopulus, in a small folio volume, without note of time, place, or printer's name, but supposed to have been printed at Milan, a. d. 1493 (Panzer, Annal. Typogr. vol. ii. p. 96). The full title of this edition is Hep} dia\€KT<av t&v irapa KopivOov irap€K€\r)- Qeicruv, De Dialectis a Coriniho decerptis. It was afterwards frequently reprinted as an appendix to the earlier Greek dictionaries, or in the collections of grammatical treatises (e. g. in the Thesaurus Cornucopiae of Aldus, fol. Venice, 1496, with the works of Constantine Lascaris, 4to. Venice, 1512 ; in the dictionaries of Aldus and Asulanus, fol. Venice, 1524, and of De Sessa and Ravanis, fol. Venice, 1525), sometimes with a Latin version. Sometimes (as in the Greek Lexicons of Stephaims and Scapula) the version only was given. All these earlier editions were made from two or three MSS., and were very defective. But in the last century Gisbertus Koenius, Greek professor at Franeker, by the collation of fresh MSS., pub lished the work in a more complete form, with a preface and notes, under the title of Tpriyopioi, fjL7)rpoTro\lTov Kopivdov Trept JuaAe/CTco*', Gregorius Corinthi Metropolita de Dialectis, 8vo. Leyden, 1766. The volume included two other treatises or abstracts on the dialects by the anonymous writers known as Grammaticus Leidensis and Grammaticus Meermannianus. An edition by G. H. Schaeffer, containing the treatises published by Koenius, and one or two additional, among which was the tract of Manuel Moschopulus, De Vocum Passionitrns [moschopulus], was subsequently published, 8vo. Leipzig, 1811, with copious notes and observations, by Koenius, Bastius, Boissonade, and Schaeffer ; and a Commentatio Palaeographica, by Bastius. Several works of Pardus are extant in MSS.; they are on Grammar ; the most important are appa rently that Ilepl avVTQL^ws Aoyou rfroi irepl tov /xtj ffoXoiKi^eiv kol Trepl J3ap£apiff/j.ov, k. t. A., De Con- structione Orationis^ vel de Soloecismo et Barbarismo, fyc.; that TLepl rrp6ivtav iroitjTiKM^ De Tropis Poe- tiois; and especially that entitled 'Etyytfo-eis ets toi s Kwovas tu>v SeffTroTiKuv eopTwy, k. t. A., Eocposi- tiones in Canones s. Hymnos Dominicos Festorum- que totius Anni, et in Triodia Magnae Hebdomadis ac Festorum Deiparae, a grammatical exposition of the hymns of Cosmas and Damasoenus [CqsMAS of jerusalem ; damascenus, joannes], used in the Greek Church ; a work which has been, by the oversight of Possevino, Sixtus of Sena, and others, represented as a collection of Homiliae et Sermones. (Allatius de Georgiis, p. 416, ed. Paris, et apud Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. xii. p. 122, &c.; Koenius, Praef. in Gregor. Corinth. ; Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. vi. pp. 195, &c. 320, 341, vol. ix. p. 742.) [J. C, M.]
PAREGOROS (nap/j'7opos), i. e., 44 the ad-