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PATROCLES.

was first published in the Acta Sanctorum under the 17th of March from a very ancient MS., in which it was subjoined without a break to the Confessio. III. Proverbia. First published by Ware. IV. Synodus S. Patricii; containing thirty-one canons. V. Novem Canones S. Patricio adscripti. VI. Synodus Patricii, Auxilii et Isser-nini episcoporum XXXIV. Canonibus constans.

The whole of the above canons, together with three others, are contained in Spelman's Concilia, Decreta, fyc. in Re Ecclesiastica Orbis Britannici, fol. Lond. 1639, vol. i. p. 51,&c. ; also in Wilkins, Concilia Magnae Brittanniae et Hiberniae, fol. Lond. 1736-7, vol. i. p. 2, &c. ; and in Mansi, Collectio Amplissima Conciliorum9 fol. Florent. 1761, vol. vi. p. 514, &c.

Doubtful as every one of the pieces now enu­merated must be considered, they possess more claims upon our attention than the following, which also are ascribed to St. Patrick, but are now gene­rally admitted to be unquestionably spurious.

.1. Charta s. Epistola de Antiquitate Avalonica, a fragment of which was made known by Gerard Vossius in his Miscellanea sanctorum aliquot Pa-trum Gfr. et Latt., 4to. Mogunt. 1604, under the title S. Patricii Legatio a Coelestino primo Papa ad Conrersionem Hiberniae directi s. Epistola S. Pa­tricii Apo&toli Hiberniae ex BibL Monasterii Glas-toniae in quo ipse Abbas fuit antequam esset Epis-copus Hiberniae. It was first published entire by Ware. 2. De tribus Habitaculis s. De Gaudiis Electorum et Poenis Damnatorum Liber. Ascribed by some to Augustin. 3. De Abmionibus Saeculi. Ascribed by some to Cyprian, by others to Au­gustin.

The first complete edition of the tracts attributed to St. Patrick is that by Sir James Ware (Jacobus Waraeus), 8vo. Lond. 1656. This was reprinted by Galland in his Bibliotheca Patrum, vol. x. p. 159—182, fol. Venet. 1774, together with some remarks taken from the Bollandists. See also his Prolegg. cap. iv. The most recent and useful edi­tion is that of Joachimus Laurentius Villanueva, 8vo. Dublin, 1835, which contains a number of very serviceable annotations. For an account of the statements contained in the Irish records, con­sult the essay by Mr. Petrie quoted above, which is to be found in the 18th volume of the Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy. See also Schone-mann, Biblioth. Patrum Lat. vol. ii. § 40. [W. R.]

PATROBIUS, surnamed Neronianus, one of Nero's favourite freedmen, presided at the games which this emperor exhibited to Teridates at Pu-teoli. He was put to death by Galba on his acces­sion to the throne in A. d. 68, after being previously led in chains through the city along with the other instruments of Nero's cruelty. On the murder of Galba shortly afterwards, a freedman of Patrobius purchased the head of this emperor for a hundred aurei, and threw it away on the spot where his master, had been put to death. (Dion Cass. Ixiii. 3, Ixiv. 3; Suet. Galb. 20 ; Tac. Hist. i. 49, ii. 95.) Pliny speaks (H. N. xxxv. 13. s. 47) of Pa­trobius introducing into Italy the fine sand of the Nile for the use of the palaestra, a circumstance to which .Suetonius refers in his life of Nero (c. 45).

PATROCLES (narpoK\ris). 1. A Macedonian general in the service of Seleucus I., king of Syriay by whom he was appointed to command at Babylon, soon after he had recovered possession of that city, b. c. 312, On the advance of Demetrius;

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PATROCLES.

Patrocles being unable to face that monarch in the field, withdrew beyond the Tigris, whither Deme­trius did not think fit to follow him. (Diod. xix. 100.) Of his subsequent operations in that quarter we know nothing. His name next appears as one of the friends and counsellors of Seleucus in the war against Demetrius, b. c. 286 (Plut. Demetr. 47) : and again in 280, after the death of Seleucus, we find him entrusted by Antiochus I. with the chief command of his army, and the conduct of the war in Asia. (Memnon. c. 15, ed. Orell.) We are also told that Patrocles held, both under Seleucus and Antiochus, an important government over some of the eastern provinces of the Syrian em­pire, including apparently those bordering on the Caspian Sea, and extending from thence towards the frontiers of India. (Strab. ii. pp. 69, 74.) During the period of his holding this position, he seems to have been at much pains to collect accu­rate geographical information, which he afterwards published to the world ; but though his authority is frequently cited by Strabo, who as well as Eratosthenes placed the utmost reliance on his ac­curacy, neither the title nor exact subject of his work is ever mentioned. It seems clear, however, that it included a general account of India, as well as of the countries on the banks of the Oxus and the Caspian Sea. Strabo expressly calls him the most veracious (tfKicrra \^€vb6\oyos) of all writers concerning India (ii. p. 70) ; and it appears that in addition to the advantages of his official situa­tion, he had made use of a regular description of the eastern provinces of the empire, drawn up by command of Alexander himself. (76. p. 69.) In this work Patrocles regarded the Caspian Sea as a gulf or inlet of the ocean, and maintained the pos­sibility of sailing thither by sea from the Indian Ocean ; a statement strangely misinterpreted by Pliny, who asserts (H.N.vi. 17 (21)), that Pa­trocles had himself performed the circumnavigation. (Concerning the authority of Patrocles as a geo­graphical writer, see Strabo ii. pp. 68, 69, 70, 74, xi. pp. 508, 509, 518, xv. p. 689 ; Voss. de Histor. Graecis, p. 113 ; Ukert, Geogr. vol. i. p. 122.)

2. Of Antigoneia, an officer of Perseus, king of Macedonia. (Liv. xlii. 58.) [E. H. B,]

PATROCLES (UarpoKXns). 1. OfThurii, a tragic poet, was perhaps contemporary with the younger Sophocles, about the end of the fifth and the beginning of the fourth centuries B. c. (Clem. Alex. Protrep. ii. 30, p. 9, Sylb.) Besides the mention of his Dioscuri in the above passage, and seven lines of his, preserved by Stobaeus (cxi. 3), we have no information concerning him.

2. A teacher of rhetoric, mentioned by Quin- tilian (ii. 15, 16, iii. 6, 44). [P. S.]

PATROCLES (narpoKAifa), artists. 1. A statuary, who is placed by Pliny (//. N. xxxiv. 8. s. 19), with Naucydes, Deinomenes, and Canachus II., at the 95th Olympiad, b. c. 400, which exactly agrees with the statement of Pausanias, that he made some of the statues in the great group de­dicated by the Lacedaemonians at Delphi, in memory of the victory of Aegospotami (Paus. x. 9. § 4). Pliny mentions him among the artists who made athletas et armatos et venatores sacrificantes-que (I. c. § 34). Pausanias mentions a son and disciple of Patrocles, named Daedalus, who flou­rished at the very same time as his father [dae­dalus, No. 2]. Since Daedalus is called by Pausanias a Sicyonian, Sillig supposes that Patrocles

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