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manner the letters to Ausonius are distributed into two; three, or four, according to the conflicting views of critics.

3. The authenticity of the Passio S. Genesii has

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been called in question by Rosweyd, but is vindi­cated by the concurring testimony of many MSS.

Among the lost works we may notice the fol­lowing : — ]. Ad Theodosium Panegyricus, a con­gratulatory address composed in honour of the victory gained over Kugenius and Arbogastes. Although this piece is distinctly described by Honorius of Autun (De Script. Eccles. ii. 47 ; comp. Rufin. Hist. i. 27), Funccius maintains that an error has been committed as to the subject, and argues from the expressions of Paulinus himself (Ep. 9, and 28), that it was a funeral oration delivered after the death of the emperor. (See also Hieronym. Ep. 13 ; Cassiodor. L. S. c. 21 ; Gennadius, 48 ; Trithem. 117.) 2. De Poenitentia et de Laude generali omnium Marti/rum, affirmed by Gennadius to be the most important of all his pro­ductions. Here again we might conjecture that there was some confusion, and that the titles of two treatises, one De Poenitentia, the other De Laude Martyrum, have been mixed up together. 3. Epis-tolae ad Sororem, on contempt of the world. 4. Epistolae ad A micas. 5. Suetonii Libri III. de Regibus in epitomen versibus redacti, loudly com­mended by Ausonius, who has preserved nine lines. 6. A translation of Recognitions, attributed to Clemens [clemens romanus]. We hear also of a Sacramentarium and a Hymnarium.

The Epistles Ad Marcellam and Ad Celantiam, together with the poems, Exhortatio ad Conjuyem, De Nomine Jesu, and a Vita S. Martini in six books, do not belong to this father.

The enthusiastic commendations bestowed upon the learning and genius of Paulinus by his con­temporaries, and repeated by successive generations of ecclesiastical critics, if not altogether unmerited, have at least been too freely lavished. Although well versed in the works of the Latin writers, his knowledge of Greek was very imperfect, and he occasionally betrays much ignorance regarding the common facts of history. The quotations from Scripture so frequently adduced in support or illustration of his arguments, will be found in many instances to be strangely twisted from their true sig­nification, while his allegorical interpretations are in the highest degree far-fetched and fantastic. His poetry, although offending grievously against the laws of prosody and metre, is in every respect far superior to his prose. The purity of the language proves how deeply he had studied the best ancient models ; the descriptions are lively, the pictures vivid, hut there is no creative power, no refined taste, .no sublimity of thought, no grandeur of expression.

The early impressions of Paulinus, commencing with that printed at Paris by Badius Ascensius, 8vo. 1516, present the text in a most mutilated, corrupt, and disordered condition. Considerable improvements were introduced by the Jesuit Her­bert Rosweyd (8vo. Antv. 1622), who compiled some useful annotations and prefixed a biographical sketch by his friend Sacchini; but the first really valuable materials were furnished by another Jesuit, Peter Francis Chifflet, whose Paulinus Illustratus was published at Dijon, 4to. 1662. This was fol­lowed after a lapse of more than twenty years by the very elaborate and complete edition of Jean Baptiste Le Brun, 4to. Paris, 1685, which may

vol. in.



still be regarded as the standard. It contains the text corrected by a collation of all the best MSS., voluminous commentaries, dissertations, indices, a new life of Paulinus, and a variety of documents requisite for the illustration of his works. The first volume of Muratori's Anecdota (4to. Medio- lan. 1697) exhibited in a complete form, from a MS. in the Ambrosian library, three of the Car- mina Natalitia (xi. xii. xiii.), which had previously appeared as disjointed fragments, and they are accompanied by twenty-two dissertations on all the leading events in the history of Paulinus and all the persons with whom he was in any way con­ nected. These poems were afterwards republished, with emendations, by Mingarelli in his Anecdoto- rum Fasciculus (4to. Rom. 1756), and by Galland in his Bibliotheca Patrum, vol. viii. (fol. Ven. 1772) p. 211. There is a reprint of Le Brun with the additional matter from Muratori, fol. Veron. 1736. The two elegies contributed by Mai are to be found in " Episcoporum Nicetae et Paulini Scripta ex Vaticanis Codicibus edita," fol. Rom. 1827. (Auson. Ep. 19, 23, 24 ; Paulin. Ep. ad Auson. i. 75 ; Ambros. Ep. 36 ; Augustin. De Civ. Dei, i. 10 ; Hieronjnn. Ep. xiii. Iviii. ed. Vallarsi ; Cas­ siodor. 7. D. ii. ; Gennad. De Script. Eccles. 48 ; Honor. August, ii. 47; Trithem. 117; Idat. Chron. ; Gregor. Dialog, iii. 1 ; Surius, de pro- batis SS. Uistoriis, vol. xxii.; Pagi, Ann. 431, n. 53 ; Schonemann, 'Bibl. Patrum Lot. \o\. i. cap. 4. § 30 ; Bahr, Geschichte der Rom. Litterat. Suppl. Band, Ite Abtheil. § 23—25, 2te Abtheil. § 100.) [W. R.]

PAULFNUS, ANFCIUS, consul in a. d. 498 with Joannes Scytha (Chron. Pasch. ; Cod. Just. 5. tit. 30. s. 4.

^PAULFNUS, M. AURE'LIUS, consul a. d. 277 with the emperor M. Aurelius Probus. (Cod. Just. 8. tit. 56. s. 2.)

PAULFNUS, LO'LLIUS. [Loi.Lius, No. 5.] PAULFNUS, POMPEIUS, commanded in Germany along with L. Antistius Vetus in a.d. 58, and completed the dam to restrain the inundations of the Rhine, which Drusus had commenced sixty-three years before. In a. d. 62 he was appointed, along with L. Piso and Ducennius Geminus, to the superintendence of the public revenues. On this occasion Tacitus calls him consularis; but his name does not occur in the consular fasti (Tac. Ann. xiii. 53, xv. 18 ; Senec. de Brev. Vitae, 18). Seneca dedicated to him his treatise De Brevitate Vitae; and the Pompeia Paulina, whom the philosopher married, was probably the daughter of this Paulinus. It is uncertain, however, whether the subject of this notice is the same as the Pom-peius Paulinus, the son of a Roman eques of Arelate of whom Pliny speaks (//. N. xxxiii. 11. s. 50).

< PAULFNUS, C. SUETO'NIUS, is first men­tioned in the reign of the emperor Claudius, a. d. 42, in which year he was propraetor in Mauri­tania ; he conquered the Moors who had revolted, and advanced as far as Mount Atlas (Dion Cass. Ix. 9 ; Plin. H. N. v. 1.) In the reign of Nero, A. d. 59, Paulinus was appointed to the command of Britain. For the first two years all his under­takings were successful ; he subdued several na­tions, and erected forts in various parts of the country; but when at length in a. d. 61 he crossed over to Mona (Anglesey), Avhich was the great strong-hold of the Britons who still resisted


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