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i.56

except Ulpian. It is said that there are 2462 excerpts from Ulpian, in the Digest, and 2083 from Paulus, or 2080, according to Puchta *(Cursus, *&c. vol. i. p. 458), which make about one sixth of the whole Digest. The excerpts from Paulus and Ulpiari together make about one half of the Digest. Cervidius Scaevola, Paulus, and Ulpian, are named by Modestinus (Dig. 27. tit. 2. s 13. § 2), who was the last of the great jurists, *r£v vo^ikmv Kopv<j>aiovs: *Paulus is honoured by Gordian with the title "pru-dentissimus" (Cod. 5. tit. 4. s. 6). It has been objected to him that his style is too condensed, and that he is sometimes obscure ; but his style is as good as that of other writers of the period, though not so easy as that of Ulpian. Some writers have discovered something of Grecism in him, which is made an argument in favour of his Greek origin. The writings, like those of all the Roman jurists who are known to us *only *by excerpts, require a careful study, as we have the fragments detached from their context.

Paulus commented on Javolenus, Labeo, Salvius Julianus, C. Scaevola, and Papinian. He is cited by Macer and Modestinus.

The writings of Paulus mentioned in the Florentine Index are the following ; from some of which there is only a single excerpt or a few, and from some not one in the Digest. 1. His great work, *Ad Edictum, *in 80 books. 2. *Quaestiones, *in 26 books ; both these works are commented on by Cujacius (Op. torn. v.). 3. *Responsa^ *in 23 books. 4. *Brevia, *in 23 books. 5. *Ad Plautium^ *in 18 books. 6, *Libri ad Sabinum, *in 16 books. 7. *Ad Leges Jul. et Pap., *in 10 books. 8. *Regular*m, in 7 books, and 9. *Liber Singularis Regularium, *both of which are excerpted in the Digest: the Index also mentions *RegulariumfiiSXiovev. *10. *Sen**tentiae sive Facta, *in 6 books, but there is no excerpt in the Digest ; and this work is conjectured to be the same as the *Sex Libri Imperialium Sen-tentiarum, *which are mentioned afterwards in this article. 11. *Sententiar. Libri quinque, *dedicated to his son: this work was used in the Visigoth collection called the Breviarium, where it is divided into titles, and called *Sententiae Receptae^ *a names which may have been given to it on account of its importance, and in consequence of the sanction of Constantine and Valentinian. 12. *Ad Vitellium, *in 4 books. 13. *Ad Neratium, *in 4 books. 14. *Fi-deicommissa, *in 3 books. 15. *Decretorum Libri *///., of which it is conjectured that the *Decretorum Libri sex, *or *Imperialium Sententiarum in Cogni-tionibus prolatarum Libri sex, *or *Sententiae sive De-**creta, *may be a second edition. 16. *De Adulteriis^ *in 3 books. 17. *Libri tres Manualium. *18. *In-stitutioneS) *in 2 books, from which there is a fragment in Boethins, *Ad Ciceronis Topica, *lib. 2 (ad c. 4). 19. *De Officio Proconsulis, *in 2 books. 20. *Ad Legem Aeliam Sentiam, *in 3 books. 21. *Ad Legem Juliam* *in two books : there is only a single excerpt in the Digest (48. tit. 9. s. 15). 22. *De Jure Fisci. *in 2 books : there is only one excerpt from this work (Dig. 34. tit. 9. s. 5). 23. *Regu-larium Liber Singularis^ *which has been already referred to. 24. *De Censibus, *in 2 books, written in the time of Elagabalus (Dig. 50. tit. 15. s. 8).

All the following treatises were in single books: —1. *De Poenis Paganorum. *2. *De Poenis Mili-**tum. *3. *De Poenis omnium Legum. *4. *De Usuris. *5. *De Gradibus et Affinibus: *Cujacius *(Op. *torn, iii. *Obscrv. *vi. c. 40) says that " a person worthy

1 of credit, into whose hands this book had come entire, had affirmed that this work was almost en tirely given in the 10th fragment *De Gradibus'" *(Dig. 38. tit. 10) ; which fact, if true, shows that many of these single treatises were no more than chapters. 6. *De Jure Codicillorum. *7. *De ejc- cttsationibus Tutelarum (Vat. Frag.% *246). 8. *Ad Regulam Catonianam. *9. *Ad Set. Orfiiianum. *10. *Ad Set. Tertullianum. *11. *Ad Set. Silania- num. *12. *Ad Set. Velleianum. *13. *Ad Set. Libo- nianum, seu Clawlianum ; *thus it stands in the Index. 14. *De Officio Praefedi Vigilum. *15. *De Officio Praefecti Urbi. *16. *De Officio **Praetoris Tutelaris: *there is no excerpt from this work in the Digest, but there are two excerpts in the *Fragmenta Vaticana, *§§ 244, 245. 17. *De extraordinariis Criminibus : *there is no excerpt in the Digest. 18. *Hypoiliecaria, *which should be *Ad J-fypothecariam Formulam: *there is no excerpt in the Digest. 19. *Ad Municipalem : *there is no excerpt in the Digest, but there is an excerpt in the *Fragmenta Vaticana^ *§ 237, the commence ment of which is also in the Digest (27. tit. 1. s. 46. § 1), but it is cited from the *Liber de Cog- nitionibus; *there is also another excerpt in the *Fragmenta Vaticana, *§ 243. 20. *De Publicis Judiciis. *21. *De Inofficioso Testamento. *22. *De Septemriralibus Judiciis, *which, as has been sug gested by Gronovius, 'should doubtless be *De Centumviralibus Judiciis. *23. *De Jure Sin- gulari. *24. *De Secundis Tabulis. *25. *Ad Ora- tionem D. Severi. *26. *Ad Orationem D. Marci. *27. *Ad Legem Velldam: *there is no excerpt in the Digest. 28. *Ad Legem Cinciam. *29. *Ad Legem Fa'cidiam. *30. *De tacito Fideicommisso. *31. *De Portionibus quae Liberis Damnatorum conceduntur. *32. *De Juris et Facii Ignorantia. *33. *De Adulteriis *(Dig. 48. tit. 16. s. 16) ; yet there are excerpts from the *Tres Libri de Adulteriis^ *which lead to the inference that there may be some-error as to the *Liber Singularis dz Adulteriis. *34. *De Instructo et Instrumento. *35. *De **Appellationibus : *there is no excerpt from this work in the Digest. 36. *De Jure Libellorum. *37. *De Testamentis, *by which is intended the *Liber de Forma Testamenti *(Dig. 32. s. 98). 38. *De Jure Patronatus. *39. *De Jure Patronatus quod ex Lege **Julia et Papia venit. *40. *De Actionibus. *41. *De **Concurrentibus Actionibus. *42. *De Intercessionibus **Feminarum ; *which is conjectured by Zimmern to be the same as the *Ad Set. Velleianum. *43. *De, Donationibus inter Virurn et Uxorem. *44. *De **Legibus. *45. *De Legitimis Hereditatibm: *there- are no excerpts from the three last works in the Digest. 46. *De Libertatibus dandis. *47. *De Senatus Consultis. **

The Index does not contain the following works, unless, as Zimmern remarks, they ought to stand in place of some of the works which are named in the Index, and from which there are no excerpts ;— 1. *Libri ad Edictum Aedil. Curul. *2. The excerpts from Alfenus and Labeo. 3. *Libri de Officio Con-**sidis. *4. And the following *Libri Singidares : De **Liberali Causa^De Articidis Liberalis Causae *(which seems to be the same work), *De Assignatione Liber-**torum, De Conceptione Formularum, De Dotis Re-**petitione, Ad Legem Fusiam Caniniam, De Officiis Assessorum9 Ad Set. Turpillianum, De Variis Lec-**tionibus, *and *De Cognitionibus ; *and the notes to Julian, Papinian, and Scaevola, which last, however, are merely cited. There is also a passage in the

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