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The edition of C. G. Siebelis, Leipzig, 1822— 1828, 5 vols. 8vo, has an improved text, and the corrected version of Amaseo, with a copious com­ mentary and index. The edition of Imm. Bekker, Berlin, 1826—7, 2 vols. 8vo, is founded solely on the Paris MS. 1410, and the few deviations from the text are noted by the editor ; there is a very good index to this edition. The latest edition is by J. H. C. Schubart and C. Walz, Leipzig, 1838—40, 3 vols. 8vo. There is a French trans­ lation by Clavier, with the Greek text collated after the Paris MSS. Paris, 1814, &c, 6 vols. 8vo. The latest German translation is by E. Wiedasch, Munich, 1826—29, 4 vols. 8vo. There is an English translation by Thomas Taylor, the trans­ lator of Plato and Aristotle, which in some pas­ sages is very incorrect. [G. L.]

PAUSANIAS (rtava-avias). 1. A commentator on Heracleitus, hence surnamed tHpaKAem(mfc. (Diog. Laert. ix. 15.)

2. A Lacedaemonian historian, who, according to Suidas (s. v.J, wrote, Uepl 'EAA^o-TroVrou, acckco-vind, %poj/itfa, irepl 'A/j.<j)iKTv6vuj/, irepl roov tv Aa-K(acriv copras. He is probably the author referred to by Aelian and Arrian (Tactic, c. 1) as having written on the subject of Tactics. [W. M. G.]

PAUSANIAS (navffavias), the name of two Greek physicians.

1. A native of Sicily in the fifth century b.c., who belonged to the family of the Asclepiadae, and whose father's name was Anchitus. He was an intimate friend of Empedocles, who dedicated to him his poem on Nature. (Diog. Laert. viii. 2. § 60 ; Suidas, s. v. "Airvovs ; Galen, Z>e Meth. Med. i. 1. vol. x. p. 6.) There is ex­tant a Greek epigram on this Pausanias, which is attributed in the Greek Anthology to Simonides (vii. 508), but by Diogenes Laertius (L c.) to Empedocles. The latter opinion appears to be more probable, as he could hardly be known to Simonides, who died b. c. 467. It is also doubtful whether he was born, or buried, at Gela in Sicily, as in this same epigram Diogenes Laertius reads e0peij/e FeAa, and the Greek Anthology e0a\J/e FeAa. Perhaps the former reading is the more correct, as it seems to be implied by Diogenes Laertius that Pausanias was younger than Empe­docles, and we have no notice of his dying young, or being outlived by him.

2. A physician who attended Craterus, one of the generals of Alexander the Great, and to whom the king addressed a letter when he heard he was going to give his patient hellebore, enjoining him to be cautious in the use of so powerful a medi­ cine, probably about b. c. 324. (Plut. Alex. c.41.) [W. A. G.]

PAUSANIAS (Uavaavias}, artists. 1. A statuary, of Apollonia, made the statues of Apollo and Callisto, which formed a part of the great votive offering of the Tegeans at Olympia. He flourished, therefore, about B. c. 400. (Paus. x. 9. § 3 ; daedalus II.)

2. A painter, mentioned by Athenaeus as a TTopvoypatyos, but otherwise unknown. (Ath. xiii. p. 567, b.) [P.S..I

PAUSIAS (Uavcrias), one of the most distin­guished painters of the best school and the bost period of Greek art, was a contemporary of Ans-teides, Melanthius, and Apelles (about b.c. 360— 330), and a disciple of Pamphilus. He had pre­viously been instructed by his father Brietes, who


lived at Sicyon, where also Pausias passed his life. He was thus perpetually familiar with those high principles of art which the authority of Pam­philus had established at Sicyon, and with those great artists who resort to that city, of which Pliny says, diufuit ilia patria picturae.

The department of the art which Pausias most practised, and in which he received the instruction of Pamphilus, was painting in encaustic with the oestrum, and Pliny calls him primum in hoc yenere nobilem. Indeed, according to the same writer, his restoration of the paintings of Polygnotus, on the walls of the temple at Thespiae, exhibited a striking inferiority, because the effort was made in a depart­ment not his own, namely, with the pencil.

Pausias was the first who applied encaustic painting to the decoration of the ceilings and walls of houses. Nothing of this kind had been prac­tised before his time, except the painting of the ceilings of temples with s.tars.

The favourite subjects of Pausias were small panel-pictures, chiefly of boys. His rivals im­puted his taste for such small pictures to his want of ability to paint fast: whereupon he executed a picture of a boy in a single day, and this picture became famous under the name of hemeresios (a day's work).

Another celebrated picture, no doubt in the same style, was the portrait of Glycera, a flower-girl of his native city, of whom he was enamoured when a young man. The combined force of his affection for his mistress and for his art led him to strive to imitate the flowers, of which she made the garlands that she sold ; and he thus acquired the greatest skill in flower-painting. The fruit of these studies was a picture of Glycera with a gar­land, which was known in Pliny's time as the StepJianeplocos (garland-weaver) or Stephanepolis (garland-seller). A copy of this picture (apogra-phon) was bought by L. Lucullus at the Dionysia at Athens for the great sum of two talents.

Another painting is mentioned by Pliny as the finest specimen of Pausias's larger pictures : it was preserved in the portico of Pompey at Rome. This picture was remarkable for striking effects of foreshortening, and of light and shade. It repre­senting a sacrifice: the ox was shown in its whole length in a front and not a side view (that is, power­fully foreshortened) : this figure was painted black, while the people in attendance were placed in a strong white light, and the shadow of the ox was made to fall upon them: the effect was that all the figures seemed to stand out boldly from the picture. Pliny says that this style of painting was first invented by Pausias ; and that many had tried to imitate it, but none with equal success. (Plin. H.N. xxxv. 11. s. 40.)

Pausanias (ii. 27. § 3) mentions two other paintings of Pausias, which adorned the Tholus at Epidaurus. The one represented Love, having laid aside his bow and arrows, and holding a lyre, which he has taken up in their stead: the other Drunkenness (Me07j), drinking out of a glass gob­let, through which her face was visible.

Most of the paintings of Pausias were probably transported to Rome, with the other treasures of Sicyonian art, in the aedileship of Scaurus, when the state of Sicyon was compelled to sell all the pictures which were public property, in order to pay its debts. (Plin. L c.)

Pliny (I.e. § 31) mentions Aristolaus, the son

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