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and disciple of Pausias, and Mechopanes, another of his disciples. [P. S.]
PAUSIRAS (Tlavaipas), or PAUSIRIS (Hau-cripis). ]. Son of Amyrtaeus, the rebel satrap of Egypt. [amyrtaeus.] Notwithstanding his father's revolt, he was appointed by the Persian king to tne satrapy of Egypt. (Herod, iii. 15.)
2. One of the leaders of the Egyptians in their revolt against Ptolemy Epiphanes. The rebel chiefs had made themselves masters of Lycopolis, but were unable to hold out against Polycrates, the general of Ptolemy, and they surrendered them selves to the mercy of the king, who caused them all to be put to death, b. c, 184. (Polyb. xxiii. 16.) Concerning the circumstances and period of this revolt, see Letronne (Comm. sur I*Inscription de Rosette, p. 23. Paris, 1841). [E. li. B.]
PAUSISTRATUS (nauo-urrparos), a Rho-dian, who was appointed to command the forces of that republic in b. c. 197 ; he landed in the district of Asia Minor called Peraea with a cdhsi-derable army, defeated the Macedonian general Deinocrates, and reduced the whole of Peraea, but failed in taking Stratoniceia. (Liv. xxxiii. 18). During the war with Antiochus he was appointed to command the Rhodian fleet (b.c. 191), but joined the Romans too late to take part in the victory over Polyxenidas. (Id. xxxvi. 45.) The following spring (b. c. 190) he put to sea early with a fleet of thirty-six ships, but suffered himself to be deceived by Polyxenidas, who pretended to enter into negotiations with him, and having thus lulled him into security suddenly attacked and totally defeated him. Almost all his ships were taken or sunk, and Pausistratus himself slain while vainly attempting to force his way through the enemy's fleet. (Liv. xxxvii. 9, 10—11 ; Ap-pian. Syr. 23,24 ; Polyb. xxi. 5 ; Polyaen. v. 27.) Appian calls him Pausimachus. [E. H. B.]
PAUSON (IIauVa>j>), a Greek painter, of whom very little is known, but who is of some importance on account of the manner in which he is mentioned by Aristotle in the following passage (Poet. 2. § 2), wtnrep ol 7pa<petV, TloKvyvuros /xe^ fcpeiTTOus, Tlavcrw 8e xe'LPovsi &iovvcrios 5e 6/J.oiovs eftca^ej/, which undoubtedly means that while, in painting men, Dionysius represented them just as they are, neither more nor less beautiful than the average of human kind, Polygnotus on the one hand invested them with an expression of ideal excellence, while Pauson delighted in imitating what was defective or repulsive, and was in fact a painter of caricatures. In another passage, Aristotle says that the young ought not to look upon the pictures of Pauson, but those of Polygnotus and of any other artist who is rjOucos. (Polit. viii. 5.
From these allusions it may safely be inferred that Pauson lived somewhat earlier than the time of Aristotle. A more exact determination of his date is gained from two allusions in Aristophanes to a certain Pauson, if this person is, as the Scholiasts and Suidas supposed, the same as the painter (Aristoph. Acharn. 854 ; Pint. 602 ; Schol. II. cc. ; Suid. s. v. Tlavaowos TTTw^orepos) ; but this is very doubtful, and the passages seem rather to refer to some wretched parasite or mendicant. (Comp. Suid. s. v. 'AffKhfiTrieLov &dpnaKOv.) A curious anecdote is told of Pauson by Plutarch, (de Pyih. Orac. 5, p. 396, d), Aelian ( F. H. xiv. 15), and Lucian (I)emosth. Encom. 24). In the MSS. of
Aristotle and Lucian the name is frequently writ' ten Uaacov and Tla.<T(rw. [P. S.]
PAX, the personification of peace, was wor shipped at Rome, where a festival was celebrated in her honour and that of Salus, on the 30th of April. (Ov. Fast. i. 711; Juv. i. 115; Plin. H. N. xxxvi, 5 ; Gell. xvi. 8.) [L. S.]
PAXAMUS (na|a,uos), a writer on various subjects. Suidas (s. v.) mentions that he wrote a work called BoiwriKa, in two books ; also two books on the art of dyeing (/3a(pj«a), two on hus bandry, and a work entitled SwSe/carexwi/, which Suidas explains (according to the emendation of Kuster, who gives ear* for the old reading £tj), to be an erotic work, Trepl aiffxpuv o^r^arcoz/. Some fragments from the treatise on husbandry are pre served in the Geoponica. Paxamus also wrote a culinary work, entitled o'^aprim/ca, which, Suidas states, was arranged in alphabetical order. To this work an allusion is probably made by Athenaeua (ix. p. 376, d). [W. M. G.]
PAZALIAS, an engraver on precious stones, whose time is unknown. There is a gem of his, representing a female bacchanal, riding on a cen taur, which she governs with a thyrsus. (Spilsbury Gems, No. 26.) [P. S.]
PEDANIUS. 1. T. pedanius, the first centurion of the principes, was distinguished for his bravery in the second Punic war, b. c. 212. (Liv. xxv. 14 ; Val. Max. iii. 2. § 20.)
2. pedanius, one of the legates of Augustus, who presided in the court, when Herod accused his own sons. (Joseph. B. J. i. 27. § 3.)
3. pedanius sec uno us, praefectus urbi in the reign of Nero, was killed by one of his own slaves. (Tac. Ann. xiv. 42.)
COIN OF PEDANIUS COSTA.
5. pedanius costa, was passed over by Vitel-lius in his disposal of the consulship in A. d. 69, because Pedanius had been an enemy of Nero. (Tac. Hist. ii. 71.)
PEDARITUSorPAEDA'RETUStneSa'prros, IIcuSdpeTos), a Lacedaemonian, the son of Leon, was sent out to serve in conjunction with Astyo-chus, and after the capture of lasus was appointed to station himself at Chios, late in the summer of b.c. 412. (Thuc. viii. 28.) Having marched by land from Miletus, he reached Erythrae, and then crossed over to Chios just at the time when application was made by the Lesbians to Astyochus for aid in a revolution'which they meditated. But, through the reluctance of the Chians, and the refusal of Pedaritus, Astyochus was compelled to