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On this page: Pegasus – Peiraeus – Peiranthus – Peirasus – Peiren – Peirene – Peirithous – Peiroos – Peisander

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PEGASUS.

offered the sacrifice, and caught Pegasus, who was drinking at the well Peirene (Pind. Ol. xiii. 90, &c. with the Schol. ; Strab. viii. p. 379). According to some Athena herself tamed arid bridled Pegasus, and surrendered him to Bellerophon (Paus. ii. 4. § 1), or Bellerophon received Pegasus from his own father Poseidon (Schol. ad Horn. II. vi. 155). After he had conquered the Chimaera (Pindar says that he also conquered the Amazons and the Solymi, Ol. xiii. 125), he endeavoured to rise up to heaven with his winged horse, but fell down upon the earth, either from fear or from giddiness, or being thrown off by Pegasus, who was rendered furious by a gad-fly which Zeus had sent. But Pega­sus continued his flight (Hygin. Poet. Astr. ii. 18 ; Pind. Isthm. vii. 6 ; Tzetz. ad Lye. 17 ; Eustath. ad Horn. p. 636). Whether Hesiod considered Pe­gasus as a winged horse, cannot be inferred with certainty from the word diroTcra^vos ; but Pindar, Euripides, and the other later writers, expressly mention his wings.

Pegasus lastly was also regarded as the horse of the Muses, and in this capacity he is more cele­ brated in modern times than he ever was in an­ tiquity ; for with the ancients he had no connection with the Muses, except that by his hoof he called forth the inspiring well Hippocrene. The story about this well runs as follows. When the nine Muses engaged in a contest with the nine daughters of Pierus on Mount Helicon, all became darkness when the daughters of Pierus began to sing ; whereas during the song of the Muses, heaven, the sea, and all the rivers stood still to listen, and Helicon rose heavenward with delight, until Pe­ gasus, on the advice of Poseidon, stopped its rising by kicking it with his hoof (Anton. Lib. 9) ; and from this kick there arose Hippocrene, the in­ spiring well of the Muses, on Mount Helicon, which, for this reason, Persius (Prol. ]) calls fons caballinus (Ov. Met. v. 256). Others again relate that Pegasus caused the well to gush forth because he was thirsty ; and in other parts of Greece also similar wells were believed to have been called forth by Pegasus, such as Hippocrene, at Troezene, and Peirene, near Corinth (Paus. ii. 31. § 12 ; Stat. Theb iv. 60). Pegasus is often seen represented in ancient works of art and on coins along with Athena and Bellerophon. [L. S.]

PEGASUS, a Roman jurist, one of the followers or pupils of Proculus, and praefectus urbi under Domitian (Juv. iv. 76), though Pomponius says that he was praefectus under Vespasian (Dig. 1. tit. 2. s. 2. § 47). Nothing is known of any writings of Pegasus, though he probably did write some­thing ; and certainly he must have given Responsa, for he is cited by Valens, Pomponius, Gains (iii. 64), Papinian, Paulus, and frequently by Ulpian. The Senatusconsulturn Pegasianum, which was passed in the time of Vespasian, when Pegasus was consul suifectus with Pusio, probably took its name from him. (Gains, i. 31, ii. 254 ; Inst. 2. tit. 23. § 5, 6, 7,)

The Scholia Vetera of Juvenal (iv. 77) has the following comment: " Hinc est Pegasianum, scilicet jus, quod juris peritus fuerat ;" and in v. 79, "juris peritus fuit ut praefectus ; unde jus Pega­sianum," which Schopen proposes to emend : "juris peritus, fuit urbis praefectus ; unde et S. C. Pega­sianum;" which is a probable emendation. The expression " jus Pegasianum " has been compared with "jus Aelianum," but we know of no writings

PEISANDER.

of Pegasus which were so called. (Juvenal, ed, Heinrich ; Grotius, Vitae Jurisconsult.; Zimmern, Gescliiclite des Rom. Privatrechts., p. 322 ; Wieling, Jurisprudentia Restituta^ p. 337, gives the citations from Pegasus in the Digest). [G. L.]

PEIRAEUS (Ileipaios), a son of Clytius of Ithaca, and a friend of Telemachus. (Horn. Od. xv. 539, &c. xvii. 55, 71.) [L.S.]

PEIRANTHUS (Ilei'pewflos), a son of Argus and Evadne, and the father of Callirrhoe, Argus, Arestorides, and Triopas. (Apollod. ii. 1. § 2 ; Hygin. Fab. 145 ; Schol. ad Eurip. Or. 932, where he is called Peirasus, which name also occurs in Pausanias, ii. 16. § 1, 17. § 5.) [L. S.]

PEIRASUS (neipacros), or PEIRAS, the son of Argus, a name belonging to the mythical period of Greek art. Of the statues of Hera, which Pausanias saw in the Heraeum near Mycenae, the most ancient was one made of the wild pear-tree, which Peirasus, the son of Argus, was said to have dedicated at Tiryns, and which the Argives, when they took that city, transferred to the Heraeum (Paus. ii. 17. § 5). The account of Pausanias and the mythographers, however, does not represent Peirasus as the artist of this image, as some modern writers suppose, but as the king who dedicated it. (Comp. Paus. ii. 16. § 1 ; Schol. ad Eurip. Orest. 920 ; Apollod. ii. 1. § 2 ; Euseb. Praep. Evan. iii. 8 ; Thiersch, Epochen, 20.) IP. S.]

PEIREN (Ile/prjV), the name of two mythical personages, one the father of lo, commonly called Inachus (Apollod. ii. 1. § 2), and the other a son of Glaucus, and brother of Bellerophon. (Apollod. ii. 3. § 1.) [L. S.]

PEIRENE (Tleirfvn), a daughter of Ache-lous, Oebalus, or Asopus and Methone, became by Poseidon the mother of Leches and Cenchrias (Paus. ii. 2. § 3 ; Diod. iv. 74). She was regarded as the nymph of the well Peirene near Corinth, which was believed by some to have arisen out of the tears which she shed in her grief at the death of her son Cenchrias. (Paus. ii. 3. § 5.) [L. S.]

PEIRITHOUS (Ilcipteoos), a son of Ixion or Zeus by Dia, of Larissa in Thessaly (Horn. II. ii. 741, xiv. 317 ; Apollod. i. 8. § 2 ; Eustath. ad Horn. p. 101). He was one of the Lapithae, and married to Hippodameia, by whom he became the father of Polypoetes (Horn. II. ii. 740, &c. xii. 129). When Peirithous was celebrating his mar­riage with Hippodameia, the intoxicated centaur Eurytion or Eurytus carried her off, and this act occasioned the celebrated fight between the centaurs and Lapithae (Horn. Od. xi. 630, xxi. 296, II. i. 263, &c. ; Ov. Met. xii. 224). He was worshipped at Athens, along with Theseus, as a hero. (Paus. i. 30. § 4 ; comp. Apollod. i. 8. § 2; Paus. x. 29. § 2 ; Ov. Met. viii. 566 ; Plin. H. N. xxxvi. 4, and the articles heracles and centauri.) [L. S.]

PEIROOS (Ueipoos or Heipcos), a son of Im-brasus of Aenus, and the commander of the Thracians who were allied with Priam in the Trojan war. (Horn. //. ii. 844, xx. 484.) [L. S.J

PEISANDER (IleiWSpos). 1. A son of Maemalus, a Myrmidon, and one of the warriors of Achilles. (Horn. II. xvi. 193.)

2. A son of Antimachus, and brother of Hippo-lochus, a Trojan, was slain by Agamemnon. (Horn. //. xi. 122, &c, xiii. 601, &c ; Paus. iii. 3. § 6.)

3. A son of Polyctor, and one of the suitors of Penelope. (Horn. "Od. xviii. 298, &c, xxii. 268 ; Ov. Her. i. 91.) [L. S.]

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