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), nor later than 330 b. c., at which last-men tioned period, or rather in 331, Gyrene appears to have become subject to Alexander the Great. (Arr. Anab. vii. 9 ; Diod. xvii. 49 ; Curt. iv. 7 ; Thrige, § 53.) [E. E.J
PHILAENIS (^tAcuyfe), a Greek poetess of Leucas, appears to have lived at the time of the sophist Polycrates, who was a contemporary of Isocrates. She was the reputed authoress of an obscene poem on love (irepl 'AtypoSiffiwi' d/coAacrToz> <rt/77pajUyua), which was classed by Chrysippus along with the Gastronomia of Archestratus. According to Aeschrion, however, Philaenis did not write this poem ; and in an epitaph supposed to be placed on the tomb of Philaenis, Aeschrion ascribes the work to Polycrates. This epitaph, which is written in choliambic verses, and which has been preserved by Athenaeus, is given in the collection of choliambic poets appended to Lach-mann's edition of Babrius, p. 137, Berol. 1845. (Athen. v. p. 220, £, viii. p. 335, b—e., x. p. 457, d.; Polyb. xii. 13.)
PHIL AE US ($iAatos), a son of the Telamonian Ajax and Tecmessa, from whom the Attic demos of Philai'dae derived its name. (Herod, vi. 35 ; Plut. Sol. 10 ; Paus. i. 35. § 2, who calls Philaeus a son of Eurysaces.) [L. S.]
PHILAGER ($i'Aci7pos), of Cilicia, was a Greek rhetorician, and a pupil of Lollianus, and consequently lived in the time of the Antonines. An account of him is given by Philostratus ( Vit. Soph. ii. 8), from which we learn that he was of a very vehement and quarrelsome disposition, and that after various wanderings he eventually settled at Rome.
PHILAGRIUS (SuAcfyptos), a Rhodian orator, who chose Hypeiides as his model. (Dionys. de Dinarcli. 8.)
PHILAGRIUS ($i\dypios), a Greek medical writer, born in Epeirus, lived after Galen and before Oribasius, and therefore probably in the third century after Christ. According to Suidas (s. v.} he was a pupil of a physician named Naumachius, and practised his profession chiefly at Thessalonica. Theophilus gives him the title of TrepioSei/rrfs (Comment, in Hippocr. " AphorS\ in Dietz, Scliol. in Hippocr. et Gal. vol. ii. p. 457), which probably means a physician who travelled from place to place in the exercise of his profession. He seems to have been well known to the Arabic medical writers, by whom he is frequently quoted *, and who have preserved the titles of the following of his works :—'-I. De Impetigine. 2. De Us quae Gingivae Dentibusque accidunt. 3. De Us qui Medico destituuntur. 4. De Morborum Indiciis* 5. De ArtUritidis Morbo. 6. De Renum vel Vesicae Calculo. 7. De Hepatis Morbo. 8. De Morbo Colico. 9. De Morbo Icterico. 10. De Cancri Morbo. 11. De Morsu Canis. (See Wenrich, De Auctor. Graecor. Version, et Comment. Arab. Syriac. fyc. p. 296.) Suidas says he wrote as many as seventy volumes, but of these works only a few fragments remain,
* The name appears in a very corrupted form in the old Latin translations of these writers, e. g. Filogorius, Filogoriseus, Faneligoris; and even in a modern version it is metamorphosed into Pliyla-poraus and Phylagryus. See Sontheimer's Zusam-mengesetzte Heilmittel der Araber, fyc. 1845, pp. 74, 198.
2. A physician, whose father, Philostorgius, lived in the time of Valentinian and Valens, in the latter half of the fourth century after Christ: the brother of the physician Posidonius (Philostorg, Hist. Eccles. viii. 10). Fabricius conjectures that he may be the same person to whom are addressed eight of the letters of St. Gregory Nazianzen (Bibl. Graeo. vol. xiii. p. 364, ed. vet.). This is quite possible, but at the same time it may be stated that the writer is not aware of there being any reason for supposing St. Gregory's correspondent to have been a physician. [W. A. G.]
PHILAMMON (4>iAa^wv), a mythical poet and musician of the ante-Homeric period, was said to have been the son of Apollo and the nympli Chione, or Philonis, or Leuconoe (Tatian. adv. Graec. 62, 63 ; Ovid, Metam.xi. 317 ; Pherecyd. ap. ScJiol. in Horn. Od. xix. 432, Fr. 63, ed. Miiller ; Hygin. Fab. 161 ; Theocr. xxiv. 118). By the nymph Argiope, who dwelt on Parnassus, he became the father of Thamyris and Eumolpus (Apollod. i. 3. § 3 ; Paus. iv. 33. § 3 ; Eurip. Riies. 901). He is closely associated with the worship of Apollo at Delphi, and with the music of the cithara. He is said to have established the cho- russes of girls, who, in the Delphian worship of Apollo, sang hymns in which they celebrated the births of Latona, Artemis, and Apollo ; and some ascribe to him the invention of choral music in general. The Delphic hymns which were ascribed to him were citharoedic nomes, no doubt in the Doric dialect; and it appears that Terpander com posed several of his nomes in imitation of them, for Plutarch tells us that some of Terpander's citha roedic nomes were said to have been composed by Philammon, and also that Philammon's Delphian hymns were in lyric measures (ei> ^uc-Aetri). Now Plutarch himself tells us just below, that all the early hymns of the period to which the legend sup poses Philammon to belong, were in hexameter verse ; and therefore the latter statement can only be explained by a confusion between the lyric nomes of Terpander and the more ancient nomes ascribed to Philammon (Plut. de Mus. pp. 1132, a., 1133, b. ; Euseb. Chron. ; Syncell. p. 162 ; Pherecyd./. c.). Pausanias relates that, in the most ancient musical contests at Delphi, the first who conquered was Chrysothemis of Crete, the second was Philammon, and the next after him his son Thamyris: the sort of composition sung in these contests was a hymn to Apollo, which Proclus calls a nome, the invention of which was ascribed to Apollo himself, and the first use of it to Chryso themis (Paus. x. 7. § 2 ; Procl. Chrest. 13, ed. Gaisford). A tradition recorded, but with a doubt of its truth, by Pausanias (ii. 37. § 2), made Phi lammon the author of the Lernaean mysteries. According to Pherecydes (ap. Sckol. ad Apoll, Rhod. i. 23) it was Philammon, and not Orpheus, who accompanied the Argonauts. (Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. i. p. 214 ; Muller, Dorier, bk. ii. c. 8. § 13, vol. i. p. 352, 2nd ed.) [P. S.] PHILAMMON, historical. [arsinoe, No. 5.1 PHILARCHUS. [phylarchus.] PHILA'RETUS (*iArfpeTos),the name assigned to the author of a short medical treatise, De Puhibus* which is sometimes assigned to a physician named