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PHILEMON.

liquiae, praef. p. 46, Hist. Grit. Com. Grace, p. 446.)

3. A geographical writer, of whom we know nothing, except that he lived before Pliny, by whom he is several times quoted (H. N. iv. 13. s. 27, xxxvii. 2. s. 1 1 ; Vossius, de Hist. Graec. p. 485, ed. Westermann).

4. A grammarian, surnamed 6 KpiriKos, the author of a recension of Homer, which is quoted in the scholia of the Codex Venetus (ad II. ii. 258, xvi. 467), and of a commentary, entitled SiVjUi/rra eis "O/jLTipov, which is quoted by Porphyry (Quaest. Horn. 8).

5. Of Athens, a grammarian, author of a work or works on the Attic dialect, cited under the various titles of 'attikcu Ae£eis, 'ArriKal <£ooi/cu, 'attiko, oVo/mra f) yXJaffffcti, Trepl *ATTiKfth> oVo/xa-tm (Ath. iii. p. 76, f. xi. p. 468, e. 469, a. 47 3, b. 483, a. 646, c. 652, f.). Athenaeus also cites the first book of his Traz/roSaTrcojt/ xpyjar^piW (iii. p. 134, d. i. p. 11, d.), which is not improbably a part of the same work. There are other quotations from him in Athenaeus, displaying his accurate knowledge, not only of the Attic dialect, but also of the Latin language (xiv. p. 652, f. iii. p. 114, d. ; see also Etym. Mag. p. 563. 32 ; Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. vi. p. 169).

6. The instructor of the younger Maximiir. (Capitolin. Maxim. Jun. 1.)

7. The author of a Ae£iK6v rsxvoXoyiKov, the extant portion of which was first edited, from a MS. preserved in the Royal Library at Paris, by C. Burney (Lond. 1812), and afterwards by F. Osann (Berlin, 1821). The author informs us in his preface, that his work was intended to take the place of a similar Lexicon by the Grammarian Hyperechius, for such is the true reading, and not Hypereschius, as it stands in the text of Philemon (Suid. s.vv. cT7repe%ios, AeW ; Tzetz. Chil. x. 305). The work of Hyperechius was entitled 77 rov

vovlks (TwretfeTo-a, and was arranged in eight books, according to the eight different parts of speech [hyperechius]. Philemon's lexicon was a meagre epitome of this work, the best parts of which he seems to have omitted : it is, however, not without its value in the department of literary history. It is often quoted in the Etymologicum Magnum. The part of it which is extant consists of the first book, and the beginning of the second, TT€pl ovo/nd ronv. Hyperechius lived about the middle of the fifth century of our era, and Philemon may probably be placed in the seventh. All the in­formation we have respecting him is collected by Osann, who also supplies important notices of the other writers of this name. (See also Classical Journal, No. xii. pp. 37 — 42 ; Museum Criticum, vol. i. pp. 197 — 200 ; Schneider, Ueber Philemon, in the Philol. Biblioth. vol. ii. p. 520). [P. S.]

PHILEMON, an engraver on precious stones, two of whose gems are extant. (Bracci, vol. ii. n. 94, 95.) [P. S.]

PHILEMON, a physiognomist mentioned by Abu-1- Faraj (Hist. Dynast, p. 56), as having said that the portrait of Hippocrates (which was shown him in order to test his skill) was that of a lasci­vious old man ; the probable origin of which story is explained under hippocrates, p. 484. He is also said by the same author to have written a work on Physiognomy which was extant in his time in a Syriac translation (see ,Wenrich, De

265

PHILETAERUS.

Auctor. Graecor. Version. Arab. Syriac. Pers. &c. p. 296) ; and there is at present an Arabic MS. on this subject in the library at Leyden which bears the name of Philemon, but which ought probably to be attributed to Polemo. [polemo.] (See Ca- tal. Biblioth. Lugdun. p. 461. § 1286 ; and also the Index to the Catalogue, where the mistake is cor­ rected.) [W.A. G.j

PHILESI AS (&i\iitrlas)9 a statuary of Eretria, whose age is unknown. He made two -bronze oxen, which were dedicated at Olympia, the one by'his fellow-citizens, the other by the Corcyraeans. (Pans. v. 27. § 6.) [P. S.I

PHILESIUS (*iM(Tios), a surname of Apollo at Didyma, where Branchus was said to have founded a sanctuary of the god, and to have intro­ duced his worship. (Plin. H. N. xxxiv. 8 ; comp. branchus.) [L. S.]

PHILESIUS (4nA7i<nos), an Achaean, was an officer in the army of Cyrus the Younger, and, after the treacherous capture of Clearchus and the other generals by Tissaphernes, was chosen in the place of Menon. When the Cyrean Greeks, tired of waiting for the return of Cheirisophus, deter­ mined to remove from Trapezus, Phiiesius and Sophaenetus, the eldest of the generals, were the two appointed to proceed on ship-board with the older men, the women and children, and the sick. At Cotyora, Phiiesius was one of those who at­ tacked Xenophon for having, as was presumed, endeavoured secretly to bring over the soldiers to his project of founding a Greek colony on the Euxine, without making any public announce­ ment of it. At the same place, in a court held to take cognizance of the conduct of the generals, Phiiesius was fined 20 minae (somewhat more than 80/.) for a deficiency in the cargoes of the ships in which the army had come from Trapezus, and of which he was one of the commissioners. At Byzantium, when Xenophon had calmed the tumult among the Cyreans consequent on their discovery of the treachery of Anaxibius, Phiiesius was one of the deputation which was sent to the latter with a conciliatory message. (Xen. Anab. iii. 1. § 47, v. 3. § 1, S. § 27, 8. § 1, vii. 1. §§ 32, 34.) [E. E.]

PHJLETAERUS ($i\traipos). 1. Founder of the kingdom of Pergamus, was a native of the small town of Tieium in Paphlagpnia, and was an eunuch in consequence of an accident suffered when. a child (Strab. xii. p. 543, xiii. p. 623). Accord­ing to Carystius (ap, A then. xiii. p. 577, b.) he was the son of a courtezan, though writers who flourished under the kings of Pergamus did not scruple to trace back their descent to Hercules. He is first mentioned in the service of Docimus, the general of Antigonus, from which he passed into that of Lysimachus, and soon rose to so high a degree of favour with that monarch as to be en­trusted by him with the charge of the treasures which he had deposited for safety in the strong fortress of Pergamus. He continued faithful to his trust till towards the end of the reign of Lvsi-

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machus, when the intrigues of Arsinoe, and tho death of the young prince Agathocles, to whom he had been closely attached, excited apprehensions in the mind of Philetaerus for his own safety, and led him to declare in favour of Seleucus. But though he hastened to proffer submission to that monarch he still retained in his own hands the fortress of Pergamus, with the treasures that it contained,

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