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and, after the death of Seleucus (b c. 280), took advantage of the disorders in Asia to establish himself in virtual independence. By redeeming from Ptolemy Geraunus the body of Seleucus, which he caused to be interred with due honours, he earned the favour of his son, Antiochus I., and by a prudent, but temporizing course of policy, con­trived to maintain his position unshaken for nearly twenty years ; and at his death to transmit the government of Pergamus, as an independent state, to his nephew Eumenes. He lived to the ad vanced age of eighty, and died apparently in b. c. 263 (Lucian, Macrob. 12 ; Clinton, F. H. vol. ii. p. 401). His two brothers, Eumenes and Attains, had both died before him ; but their respective sons successively followed him in the sovereign power (Strab. xiii. p. 623 ; Paus. i. 8. § 1, 10. § 4 ; Van Cappelle, de Regibus Pergamenis, pp. 1—7).

Numerous coins are extant bearing the name of Philetaerus (of which one is given below), but it is generally considered by numismatic writers, that these, or at least many of them, were struck by the later kings of Pergamus, and that the name and portrait of Philetaerus were continued in honour of their founder. Other authors, however, regard the slight differences observable in the portraits which they bear, as indicating that they belong to the successive princes of the dynasty, whom they suppose to have all borne the surname or title of Philetaerus. But it may be doubted whether this view can be maintained. (Eckhel, vol. ii. p. 473 ; Visconti, Iconogr. Grecque, vol. ii. p. 200—210 ; Van Cappelle, pp. 141—146.)


2. A son of Attalus I., and brother of Eumenes II., king of Pergamus. In b.c. 171, he was left by Eumenes in-charge of the affairs of Pergamus, while the king and Attalus repaired to Greece to assist the Romans in the war against Perseus. With this exception he plays no part in history. (Liv. xlii. 55 ; Strab. xiii. p. 625 ; Polyb. xl. 1.)

3. A brother of Dorylaus, the general of Mithri- dates, and ancestor of the geographer Strabo. (Strab. x. p. 478, xiii. p. 557.) [E. H. B.]

PHILETAERUS (OiAera/pos), an Athenian comic poet of the Middle Comedy, is said by A the-naeus to have been contemporary with Hyperides and Diopeithes, the latter perhaps the same person as the father of the poet Menander (Ath. vii. p. 342, a., xiii. p. 587). According to Dicaearchus Philetaerus was the third son of Aristophanes, but others maintained that it was Nicostratus (see the Greek lives of Aristophanes, and Suid. s. vv. 'Apur-Totyavys, <l>jAeTaipos). He wrote twenty-one plays, according to Suidas, from whom and from Athenaeus the following titles are obtained : — 'AovcAijTnos, 'ArccAai/TTj, 'AvtAAeus, KecJxxAos, KopivQiacrrys., Kvvriyis, Aa/rTraS^opoi, Trjpeus, $i\av\os ; to which must be added the Mr?*>€s, quoted in a MS. grammatical work. There are also a few doubtful


titles, namely : 'A5wi/ta£bi;<rcuj which is the title of a play by Philippides ; "avtv\\os and O*Vo- 7nW, which are also ascribed to Nicostratus ; and MeAea7pos, which is perhaps the same as the 'AraAaz/rry. The fragments of Philetaerus show that many of his plays referred to courtezans. (Meineke, Frag. Com. Graec. vol. i. pp. 349, 350, vol. iii. pp. 292—300.) f P. S.j

PHILETAS (SiATp-as). 1. Of Cos, the son of Telephus, was a distinguished poet and gram­marian (7roajr»7vs a/xa Kal KpmKos, Strab. xiv. p. 657), who flourished during the earlier years of the Alexandrian school, at the period when the earnest study of the classical literature of Greece was combined, in many scholars, with considerable power of original composition. According to Sui-das, he flourished under Philip and Alexander ; but this statement is loose and inaccurate. His youth may have fallen in the times of those kings, but the chief period of his literary activity was during the reign of the first Ptolemy, the son of Lagus, who appointed him as the tutor of his son, Ptolemy II. Philadelphia. Clinton calculates that his death may be placed about b. c. 290 (Fast. Hell. vol. iii. app. 12, No. 16) ; but he may pos­sibly have lived some years longer, as he is said to have been contemporary with Aratus, whom Eu-sebius places at b. c. 272. It is, however, certain that he was contemporary with Hermesianax, who was his intimate friend, and with Alexander Aeto-lus. He was the instructor, if not formally, at least by his example and influence, of Theocritus and Zenodotus of Ephesus. Theocritus expressly mentions him as the model which he strove to imitate. (Id. vii. 39 ; see the Scholia ad loc.)

Philetas seems to have been naturally of a very weak constitution, which at last broke down under excessive study. He was so remarkably thin as to become an object for the ridicule of the comic poets, who represented him as wearing leaden soles to his shoes, to prevent his being blown away by a strong wind ; a joke which Aelian takes literall}', sagely questioning, however, if he was too weak to stand against the wind, how could he be strong enough to carry his leaden shoes ? (Pint. An Seni sit ger. Respub. 15, p. 791, e. ; Ath. xii. p. 552, b. ; Aelian, V. II, ix. 14, x. 6). The cause of his death is referred to in the following epigram (ap. Ath. ix. p. 401, e.) : —

\6ycav 6 tJ/

ko vvicrov

We learn from Hermesianax (ap. Ath. xiii. p. 598, f.) that a bronze statue was erected to the memory of Philetas bv the inhabitants of his native island,

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his attachment to which during his life-time he had expressed in his poems. (Scliol. ad Theoc. I. c.} The poetry of Philetas was chiefly elegiac (Suid. eypatyev enrypa/^uara Koi sheyeias Kal aAAa). Of all the writers in that department he was es­teemed the best after Callimachus ; to whom a taste less pedantic than that of the Alexandrian critics would probably have preferred him ; for, to judge by his fragments, he escaped the snare of cumbrous learned affectation (Quintil. x. 1. § 58 ; Procl. Ghrest. 6. p. 379, Gaisf.). These two poets formed the chief models for the Roman elegy : nay, Pro • pertius expressly states, in one passage, that he imitated Philetas in preference to Callimachus (Propert. ii. 34. 31, iii. 1. 1, 3. 51, 9. 43, iv. 6. 2 ; Ovid, Art. Amat. iii. 329, Remed. Amor. 759 ;

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