Scanned text contains errors.
PHILOMELUS ($iAo>7Aos), one of the wit nesses to the will of Theophrastus, who died b c. 287 (Diog. Laert. v. 57). He is perhaps the same with Philomelus, mentioned by Numenius, the Pythagoreo-Platonic philosopher, in connection with Mnaseas and Timon, as belonging to the school of the sceptics. (Euseb. P. E. xiv. p. 731, ed. 1688). [W. M. G.]
PHILOMNESTUS (^Ao/x^o-ros), the author of a work, Hep! tout/ *v 'Pddy ^ivQi^v (Athen. p. 74, f.). As Athenaeus, in another passage (x. p. 445, a.), ascribes the same work to Philodemus, it would appear that there is a mistake in the name of one of these passages.
PHILOMUSUS. 1. A freedman of Livius, is described in an inscription as inacjr., that is, in-aurator, a gilder, one of those artists, or perhaps rather artificers, whose employment consisted in covering wooden statues and other objects with thin beaten leaves of the precious metals, and who were, called by the Greeks AeTrrovpyoi, and by the Romans Bractearii Aurifices. (R. Rochette, Ltttre a M. Schnrn, p. 384, 2nd ed.)
2. The architect of a monument of a certain Cornelia, is designated in the inscription as at the same time a scene-painter and a contractor for public works (pictor scaenarius, idem redemptor). There are other instances of the union of these two professions. (Orelli, Inscr. Latin, select. No. 2636 ; R. Rochette, I. c.) [P. S.]
PHILON (Si'Acoi/), historical. 1 A Phocian, who was charged with the administration of the sacred treasures under phalaecus. He was accused of peculation and embezzlement, and put to death in consequence, after having been compelled by the torture to disclose the names of those who had participated in his guilt, b. c. 347. (Diod. xvii. 56.)
2. A native of Aeniania in Thessaly, was an officer of the Greek mercenaries in the service of Alexander, which had been settled by that monarch in the upper provinces of Asia. After the death of Alexander these troops, actuated by a common desire to return to their native country, abandoned the colonies in which they had been settled, and assembling to the number of 20,000 foot and 3000 horse, chose Philon to be their leader. They were, however, defeated by Python, who was sent against them by the regent Perdic-cas; and the remainder submitted to him on favourable terms, but were afterwards barbarously massacred by the Macedonians in pursuance of the express orders of Perdiccas (Diod. xviii. 7). The fate of Philon himself is not mentioned.
3. There is a Philon mentioned by Justin (xiii. 4) as obtaining the province of Illyria, in the division of Alexander's empire after his death: but this is certainly a mistake, and the name is probably corrupt.
4. A citizen of Chalcis in Euboea, who appears to have taken a leading part in favour of Antio-chus the Great, as his surrender was made by the Romans one of the conditions of the peace concluded by them with that monarch, b.c. 190. (Polyb. xxi. 14, xxii. 26; Liv. xxxvii. 45, xxxviii. 38.)
by an insulting speech, on which he was instantly attacked and put to death: and his fate was quickly followed by that of Agathocles himself. (Polyb. xv. 33 ; Athen. vi p. 251^ e.)
7. A Thessalian, who accompanied the Achaean deputies on their return from the camp of Q. Cae- cilius Metellus (b.c. 146), and endeavoured, but in vain, to induce the Achaeans to accept the terms offered them by the Roman general. (Polyb. xl. 4.) f [E.H.B.]
PHILON (<l>iAcoj/), literary and ecclesiastical. Many persons of this name occur, of most of whom notices will be found in Jonsius (De Script. Hist. Phil. iii. 44), and Fabricius (Bibl. Grace. vol. iv. p. 750, &c.). To these articles a general reference is made. The philosophers are spoken of below separately ; but the other persons of this name that deserve particular notice are: —
1. Of athens. While Demetrius prevailed at Athens, Sophocles of the Simian district (2ou-vteus), got a law passed, ordaining that no philo sopher should teach in Athens, without the express consent of the boule and the people, on pain of death. This had the effect of driving Theophrastus, and all the other philosophers, from Athens. (Diog. Laert. v. 38.) Hence Athenaeus erroneously represents this law as expressly banishing them (xiii. p. 610. f. ; compare Pollux, ix. 42, where the law is said to have been aimed at the Sophists). This law was opposed by Philon, a friend of Aristotle, and defended by Demochares, the nephew of Demosthenes. (Athen. I. c.} The exertions of Philon were successful, and next year the philosophers returned, Demochares being sentenced to pay a fine of five talents. (Diog. Laert. I. c., where for 4>/AAiWos read QiXuvos.) The date of this transaction is doubtful. Alexis (apud Athen. /. c.) merely mentions Demetrius, without enabling us to judge whether it is Phale-reus, b. c. 316, or Poliorcetes, b. c. 307. Clinton leans to the former opinion. (F. H. vol. ii. p. 169.) But he gives references to the opinions of others, who think it referable to the time of Demetrius Poliorcetes—to whom may be added Ritter. (Hist, of Ancient Philosophy, vol. iii. p. 379. Engl. Transl.) Jonsius (De Script. Hist. Phil.) places it as low as about b. c. 300. It is not improbable that this Philon is the slave of Aristotle, whom, in his will, he ordered to receive his freedom. (Diog. Laert. v. 15.)
2. Of byzantium, a celebrated mechanician, and a contemporary of Ctesibius. As much confusion has arisen regarding the era of these two men, and of Heron the pupil of Ctesibius (see Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. iv. pp. 222, 234; Antholog. Graec. ed. Jacobs, vol. xiii. p. 899 ; Montucla, Histoire des Mathematiques, vol. i. p. 268), it will be necessary to attend to the correct date. Athenaeus, the mechanician, mentions that Ctesibius dedicated his work to Marcellus. This Marcellus has been supposed to be the illustrious captor of Syracuse, without any evidence. Again, the epigrammatist Hedylus speaks (Athen. xi. p. 497, c.) of Ctesibius in connection with a temple to Arsinoe, the wife and sister of Ptolemy Philadelphus. Hence it has been stated that Ctesibius flourished about the time of Ptolemy Philadelphus and Euergetes I. b.c. 285—222, and Athenaeus, in that of Archi-