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Bergk, on Greek Comedy ; the Histories of Greek Poetry, by Ulrici and Bode ; and Bernhardy, Gesch. d. Griecli. Litt. vol. ii. pp. 548—551.
2. The other Philoxenus already referred to, the Leucadian, was the son of Eryxis, and seems himself also to have had a son of the name of Eryxis (Aristoph. Ran. 945). He was a most notorious parasite, glutton, and effeminate debauchee ; but he seems also to have had great wit and good-humour, which made him a great favourite at the tables which he frequented. The events of his life are of so little importance in themselves, and the statements concerning him are so mixed up with those which relate to Philoxenus of Cythera, that it is enough to refer for further information to the works upon that poet, quoted above, especially Schmidt (p. 9, &c.). He seems to be the same person as the Philoxenus surnamed ij UrepvoKoirls, and also the same as the Philoxenus of the Diomeian demus, both of whom are ridiculed by the comic poets for their effeminacy.
3. A poet of Siphnus, mentioned in a passage of Pollux (iv. 66), where however the name seems to be a false reading for Theoxenid&s (Meineke, Hist. Crit. Com. Graec. p. 89 ; Schmidt, p. 22).
4. A celebrated Alexandrian grammarian, who taught at Rome, and wrote on Homer, on the Ionic and Laconian dialects, and several other grammatical works, among which was a Glossary, which was edited by H. Stephanus, Paris, 1573, fol.; also in Bonav. Vulcan. Thesaur. Lugd. Bat. 1600, fol., by Labbeus, with Cyril's Glossary, Paris, ] 679, fol. ; and in the London edition of Stephanus's Thesaurus, vol. ix. 1826. (Suid. s. v. ; Fabric. Bill. Graec. vol. vi. pp. 193, 376, 634 ; Osann, in his Philemon, pp. 321, &c.; Schmidt, p. 22.) • 5. The author of an epigram in the Greek Anthology, on Tlepolemus, the son of Polycritus, who gained an Olympic victory in 01. 131, b. c. 256 (Paus. v. 8). This must, therefore, be somewhere about the date of the poet, of whom nothing more is known. (Brunck, Anal. vol. ii. p. 58 ; Jacobs, Anfh. Graec. vol. ii. p. 58, vol. xiii. p. 937.)
6. A geographical writer, who seems to have been the author of a work on rivers. (Schol. ad Lycophr. Cassand. 1085, 1185 ; Cyrilli Lexicon, ap. Cramer, A need. Paris, vol. iv. p. 184.)
7. A Persian by birth, who afterwards was made a bishop, a. d. 485, and became one of the first leaders of the iconoclasts (Schmidt, p. 23). [P. S.]
PHILOXENUS (*«\rf|ews), an Aegyptian surgeon, who, according to Celsus (De Medic, vii. Praef. p. 137), wrote several valuable volumes on surgery. He is no doubt the same person whose medical formulae are frequently quoted by Galen, and who is called by him Claudius Philoxenus. (De Compos. Medicam. sec. Gen. ii. 17, iii. 9, vol. xiii. pp. 539, 645.) As he is quoted by Asclepiades Pharmacion (ap. Gal. De Compos. Medicam. sec. Loc. iv. 7, vol. xii. p. 731 ; De Compos. Medicam. sec. Gen. iii. 9, iv. 13, vol. xiii. pp. 545, 738), he must have lived in or before the first century after Christ. He is quoted also by Soranus (De Arte Obstetr. p. 136), Paulus Aegineta (DeMed. iii. 32, vii. 11, pp.453, 658), Aetius (ii. 3. 77, iv. 3. 7, iv. 4. 43, pp. 331, 744, 800), and Nicolaus Myrepsus (De Compos. Medicam. i. 239, 240, p. 411), and also by Avicenna (Canon, v. 2. 2, vol. ii. p. 249, ed. Arab.), where the name is corrupted into Filo-desifis, in the old Latin version (vol. ii. p. 319, ed. 1595), and into Phylocasanes b\ Sontheimer in
his recent German translation (Zusammengesdzte Heilmittel der Araber, &c. p. 215). [W. A. G.] t PHILO'XENUS, a painter of Eretria, the dis ciple of Nicomachus, whose speed in painting he imitated and even surpassed, having discovered some new and rapid methods of colouring (such, at least, appears to be the meaning of Pliny's words, breviores etiamnum quasdam picturas compendiarias invenit, H. N. xxxv. 10. s. 36. § 22). Never theless, Pliny states that there was a picture of his which was inferior to none, of a battle of Alexan der with Dareius, which he painted for king Cas- sander. A similar subject is represented in a cele brated mosaic found at Pompeii, which, however, the best critics think to have been copied, more probably, from Helena's picture of the battle of Issus (see Miiller, Arch'dol. d. Kunst, § 163, n. 6). As the disciple of Nicomachus, who flourished about b. c. 360, and as the painter of the battle above-mentioned, Philoxenus must have flourished under Alexander, about b. c. 330 and onwards. The words of Pliny, " Cassandro regi" if taken literally, would show that the date of his great picture must have been after b.c. 317 or 315, for from one of those two years the reign of Cas- sander must be dated. (Clinton, F. H. vol. ii. p. 236.) [P. S.]
PHILOXENUS, C. AVIA'NUS, recommended by Cicero to the proconsul Acilius, b. c. 46. (Cic. ad Fam. xiii. 35.)
PHILTEAS (^Are'as), of Calacte, an historical writer, the author of a work in the Ionic dialect, entitled Na^awa, of which the third book is quoted by Tzetzes (Schol. ad Lycophr. 633). He is also mentioned in a passage of Eustathius (ad Horn. p. 1885. 51), where, however, the name is corrupted into Philetas, and Eudocia, copying the error, places the Na|m«a among the works of Philetas of Cos (Violar. p. 424). That Philteas is the true form of the name is clear from a passage in the Etymologicum Magnum (p. 795. 12), which, however, contains another error, in the words 6 /caAow-juevos iffropiKos, where the Cod. Leid. has 6 /caA-Aagcuoy, and the true reading is no doubt 6 KaAa/c-tcuos, which should probably also be substituted for e£re KaAA?j/os in the passage of Eustathius (see Meineke, Anal. Alex. pp. 351 — 353). [P.S.]
PHFLTIAS, a vase painter, whose name occurs on two of the vases in the Canino collection, in the forms <HTIA$ and 4>IVTIA£, which Raoul-Rochette and Gerhard at first read Phintias, but which most antiquaries, including R. Rochette, now read Phil- tias. (R. Rochette, Lettre a M. Scliorn, p. 55, 2d ed.) [P. S.]
PHILUMENUS ($iAoy>6i/os), a Greek phy sician, mentioned by an anonymous writer in Dr. Cramer's " Anecdota" (Anecd. Graeca Paris, vol. iv. p. 196) as one of the most eminent members of his profession. Nothing is known of the events of his life, and with respect to his date, as the earliest author who quotes him is Oribasius (Coll. Medic. viii. 45, p. 361 ; Synops. iii. pp.45, 49, viii. 6, 8, 11, 17, pp. 121, 122, 123, 124), it can only be said that he must have lived in or before the fourth century after Christ. None of his writings are extant, but numerous fragments are preserved by Aetius (see Fabric. Bibl. Gr. vol. viii. p. 328, ed. vet.). He is quoted also by Alexander Trallianus (viii. 5, 8, pp. 246, 251), and Rhazes (Cont. v.l). [W. A.G.]