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On this page: Phrixus – Phrontis – Phronton – Phrygia – Phrygillus – Phrylus



of Parthia, during the advance of Alexander against Bessus, when he was detached by the king, toge­ther with Erigyius and Caranus to crush the revolt of Satibarzanes, in Asia. He rejoined the king at Zariaspa, the following year. The next winter (b.c. 328—327), during the stay of Alexander at Nautaca, we find Phrataphernes again despatched to reduce the disobedient satrap of the Mardi and Tapuri, Autophradates, a service which he success­fully performed, and brought the rebel a captive to the king, by whom he was subsequently put to death. He rejoined Alexander in India, shortly after the defeat of Poras ; but seems to have again returned to his satrapy, from whence we find him sending his son Pharasmanes with a large train of camels and beasts of burthen, laden with provisions for the supply of the army during the toilsome march through Gedrosia (Arr. Anab. iii. 8, 23, 28, iv. 7, 18, v. 20, vi. 27 ; Curt. vi. 4. § 23, viii. 3. § 17, ix. 10. § 17). From this time we hear no more of him until after the death of Alexander. In the first division of the provinces consequent on that event, he retained his government (Diod. xviii. 3) ; but it is probable that he died previously to the second partition at Triparadeisus (b.c. 321), as on that occasion we find the satrapy of Parthia bestowed on Philip, who had been previously go­vernor of Sogdiana. (Droysen, Hellenism, vol. i. pp. 49, 151.)

2. The king of the Chorasmians who is called Pharasmanes by Arrian [pharasmanes, No. 1], bears in Curtius (viii. 1. § 8) the name of Phrata­ phernes. [E. H. B.]

PHRIXUS ($p'£os), a son of Athamas and Nephele or of Athamas and Themisto (Schol. ad Apollon. Rhod. ii. 1144), and brother of Helle, and a grandson of Aeolus (Apollon. Rhod. ii. 1141). In consequence of the intrigues of his stepmother, Ino (others state that he offered him­self), he was to be sacrificed to Zeus ; but Nephele removed him and Helle, and the two then rode away on the ram with the golden fleece, the gift of Hermes, through the air. According to Hyginus (Fab. 3), Phrixus and Helle were thrown by Dionysus into a state of madness, and while wan­dering about in a forest, they were removed by Nephele. Between Sigeum and the Chersonesus, Helle fell into the sea which was afterwards called after her the Hellespont; but Phrixus arrived in Colchis, in the kingdom of Aeetes, who gave him his daughter Chalciope in marriage (comp. Schol. ad Apollon. Rhod. ii. 1123, 1149). Phrixus sacri­ficed the ram which had carried him, to Zeus Phyxius or Laphystius (Schol. ad Apollon. Rhod. ii. 653 ; Paus. i. 24. § 2), and gave its skin to Aeetes, who fastened it to an oak tree in the grove of Ares.

By Chalciope Phrixus became the father of Argus, Melas, Phrontis, Cytisorus, and Presbon (Apollod. i. 9. § 1 ; Hygin. Fab. 14 ; Paus. ix. 34. § 5 ; Schol. ad Apollon. Rhod. ii. 1123; Tzetz. ad Lye. .22 ; Diod. iv. 47). Phrixus died in old age in the kingdom of Aeetes, or, according to others, he was killed by Aeetes in consequence of an oracle (Apollon. Rhod. ii. 1151 ; Hygin. Fob. 3), or he returned to Orchomenus, in the country of the Minyans, (Paus. ix, 34. § 5 ; tomp. athamas ; jason.) [L. S.J

PHRONTIS (&povtis), 1. A son of Phrixus and Chalciope. (Apollod. i, 9. § 1 ; Apollon, Rhod. ii. 1157; Hygin. Fab. 14.)


2. A son of Onetor, was the helmsman of Me-nelaus. (Horn. Od. iii. 282 ; Paus. x. 25. § 2.)

3. The wife of Panthous, of whom Homer speaks. (//. xvii. 40.) [L. S.]

PHRONTON (&p6v™v\ the author of two epigrams in the Greek Anthology (Brunck, Anal. vol. ii. p. 346 ; Jacobs, Anth. Graec. vol. iii. p. 56, xiii..p. 938). Jacobs supposes him to be the rhe­ torician of Emisa, mentioned by Suidas (s. v.), who lived in Rome in the reign of Severus, and died at Athens at the age of sixty, and who was the uncle of the celebrated critic Longinus. He is constantly confounded with the distinguished Roman orator, M. Cornelius Fronto, the tutor of M. Antoninus. (See Ruhnken, Dissert. Philol. de Longino, § iii. p. 6, Opusc. p. 491.) [P. S.J

PHRYGIA ($pvyia.), a daughter of Cecrops, from whom the country of Phrygia was believed to have derived its name (Plin. H. N. v. 32). Phrygia is also used for Cybele, as the goddess who was worshipped above all others in Phrygia (Virg. Aen. vii. 139 ; Strab. x. p. 469), and as a surname of Athena (Minerva) on account of the Palladium which was brought from Phrygia. (Ov. Met. xiii. 337 ; compare Apollod. iii. 12. §3.) ^ [L. S.]

PHRYGILLUS, an artist, who appears to have been one of the most ancient, as well as one of the most celebrated medallists and engravers of precious stones. There is a very beautiful intaglio by him, representing Love seated and supporting himself on the ground, in the attitude of those figures of boys playing the game of astragals, which so often occurs in the works of ancient art. The form of the letters of the name <i>PvriAAO2, the large size of the wings of the figure of Love, and the whole style of the gem, concur to show that the artist belonged to the earlier Greek school. There is also engraved upon this gem a bivalve shell, which also occurs on the coins of Syracuse ; whence it may be inferred that the artist was a Syracusan. This conjecture becomes a certainty through the fact, recently published by Raoul-Rochette, that there exist medals of Syracuse, on which the name of Phrygillus is inscribed. One medal of this type is in the possession of R. Rochette himself, who has given an engraving of it on the title-page of his Lettre a M. Schorn, by the side of an engraving of the gem already mentioned. Another medal of this type is in the collection of the Due de Luynes. The same collection contains another very beautiful Syracusan medal, in bronze, bearing the inscription 3>PY, which no one can now hesitate to recognise as the initial letters of the name Phrygillus. Raoul-Rochette accounts these three medals to be among the most precious remains of ancient numismatic art.

The identification, in this instance, of a distin­ guished medallist and gem-engraver, goes far to settle the question, which has been long discussed, whether those professions were pursued by the same or by different classes of artists among the Greeks. (R. Rochette, Lettre a M. Schorn, pp. 79 —83, 148, 2d edition.) [P. S.]

PHRYLUS, a painter, whom Pliny places at 01. 90, b. c. 420, with Aglaophon, Cephissodorus, and Evenor, the father of Parrhasius ; of all of whom he says, that they were distinguished, but not deserving of any lengthened discussion (omnes jam illustres^ nan tamen in quibus haerere expositio debeat, H. N. xxxv. 9. s. 36). [P. S.J

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