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PITTACUS.

and at another time charged with the main body while Antigonus himself advanced with the cavalry in pursuit of the enemy. Even more valuable per­haps were his services in raising fresh levies of troops, and collecting supplies of provisions and other necessaries, when the scene of war had been transferred to his own government of Media. It is probable that these circumstances called forth anew an overweening confidence in his own merits and abilities, and thus led Pithon after the fall of Eumenes to engage once more in intrigues for his own aggrandizement, which, if not directly treason­able, were sufficient to arouse the suspicions of Antigonus. The latter affected to disbelieve the rumours which had reached him on the subject, but he sent for Pithon to join him in his winter-quarters at Ecbatana, under pretence of wishing to consult him concerning the future conduct of the war. Pithon obeyed the summons without sus­picion, but as soon as he arrived he was arrested, brought to trial before a council of the friends of Antigonus, and immediately put to death, b. c. 316. (Diod. xix. 19, 20, 26, 29, 30, 38, 40, 43, 46 ; Polyaen. iv. 6. § 14.)

3. Son of Sosicles. [peithon.]

4. Son of Antigenes, an officer mentioned during the campaigns of Alexander in India. (Arr. Ind. 16.) [E. H. B.]

PITIO, a surname of the Sempronia gens, men-

COIN OF L. SEMPRONIUS PITIO.

tioned only on coins, a specimen of which is an­nexed. The obverse represents a winged head of Pallas, with the legend pitio, the reverse the Dioscuri, with the legend l. semp. and roma.

PITTACUS (HiTTa/cos), one of those early cultivators of letters, who were designated as "the Seven Wise Men of Greece," was a native of Mytilene in Lesbos. His father was named Hyr-rhadius, or Caicus, and, according to Duris, was a Thracian, but his mother was a Lesbian. (Diog. Lae'rt. i. 74 ; Suid. s. v.) According to Diogenes I,aertius (i. 80) he flourished at 01. 42, b.c. 612. He was born, according to Suidas, about 01. 32, b. c. 652. He was highly celebrated as a warrior, a statesman, a philosopher, and a poet. He is first mentioned, in public life, as an opponent of the tyrants, who in succession usurped the chief power in Mytilene. In conjunction with the bro­thers of Alcaeus, who were at the head of the aris­tocratic party, he overthrew and killed the tyrant Melanchrus. This revolution took place, according to Suidas, in 01. 42, b.c. 612. About the same time, or, according to the more precise date of Eusebius, in b. c. 606, we find him commanding the Mytilenaeans, in their war with the Athenians for the possession of Sigeum. on the coast of the Troad. In this conflict the Mytilenaeans were de­feated, and Alcaeus incurred the disgrace of leav­ing his shield on the field of battle ; but Pittacus signalized himself by killing in single combat Phrynon, the commander of the Athenians, an

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PITTACUS.

Olympic victor celebrated for his strength and courage: this feat Pittacus performed by entan­gling his adversary in a net, and then despatching him with a trident and a dagger, exactly after the fashion in which the gladiators called retiarii long afterwards fought at Rome. For this achievement he received from the Mytilenaeans high honours and substantial rewards ; but of the latter he would accept only as much land as he could cast his spear over ; and this land he dedicated to sacred uses, and it was known in later ages as " the Pittaceian land." (Diog. Lae'rt. i. 75 ; Herod, v. 94, 95 ; Euseb. Chron. s. a. 1410; Strabo, xiii. p. 600 ; Suid. s. v. ; Polyaen. i. 25 ; Plut. Mor. p. 858, a, b ; Festus, s. v. Retiario ; alcaeus.) This wat was terminated by the mediation of Periander, who assigned the disputed territory to the Athenians (Herod. Diog. IL cc.) ; but the internal troubles of Mytilene still continued. The supreme power was fiercely disputed between a succession of tyrants, such as Myrsilus, Megalagyrus, and the Cleanac-tids, and the aristocratic party, headed by Alcaeus and his brother Antimenidas ; and the latter were driven into exile. (Strabo, xiii. p. 617.) It would seem that the city enjoyed some years of compara­tive tranquillity, until the exiles tried to effect their return by force of arms. To resist this attempt the popular party chose Pittacus as their ruler, with absolute power, under the title of aiav/j.-ptjttjs, a position which differed from that of a rvpavvos, inasmuch as it depended on popular election, and was restricted in its prerogatives, and sometimes in the time for which it was held, though sometimes it was for life ; in short, it was an elective tyranny, (as a-rrAcws etWe^y alperrj Tvpavvis. (Aris-tot. Polit. iii. 9. s. 14.) Pittacus held this office for ten years, b. c. 589 to 579, and then volun­tarily resigned it, having by his administration restored order to the state, and prepared it for the safe enjoyment of a republican form of government. The oligarchical party, however, represented him as an ordinary tyrant, and Alcaeus poured out in­vectives against him in the poems which he com­posed in his exile, calling him tov KaKOTrdrpiSa niTTatcoj/, deriding the zeal and unanimity with which the people chose him for their tyrant, and even ridiculing his personal peculiarities (Fr. 37, 38, ed. Bergk ; Aristot. I.e.; Diog. Lae'rt. i. 81): there is, however, some reason to suppose that Alcaeus was afterwards reconciled to Pittacus. [alcaeus.] He lived in great honour at Myti­lene for ten years after the resignation of his government; and died in B. c. 569, at a very ad­vanced age, upwards of 70 years according to Laertius (i. 79), upwards of 80 according to Suidas, and 100 according to Lucian. (Macrob. 18.)

There are other traditions respecting Pittacus, some of which are of very doubtful authority. Diogenes Laertius mentions various communications between him and Croesus, and preserves a short letter, which was said to have been written by Pittacus, declining an invitation to Sardis to see the treasures of the Lydian king (i. 75. 77, 81) ; and Herodotus mentions a piece of sage advice which was given to Croesus, as some said, by Bias, or, according to others, by Pittacus (i. 27) : but all these accounts are rendered doubtful by the fact, that Croesus was only 25 years old at the death of Pittacus. Other anecdotes of his clemency, wisdom, and contempt of riches, are related by Diogenes Laertius, Plutarch, Aelian, and other writers,

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