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On this page: Pleione – Pleistaenetus – Pleistarchus – Pleisthenes – Pleistoanax

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PLEISTARCHUS.

the seventh Sterope, and relate that she became invisible from shame, because she alone among her sisters had had intercourse with a mortal man :

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others call her Electra, and make her disappear from the choir of her sisters on account of her grief at the destruction of the house of Dardanus (Hygin. Fab. 192, Poet. Astr. ii. 21). The Pleiades are said to have made away with them­ selves from grief at the death of their sisters, the Hyades, or at the fate of their father, Atlas, and were afterwards placed as stars at the back of Taurus, where they form a cluster resembling a bunch of grapes, whence they were sometimes called &6rpvs (Eustath. ad Horn. p. .1155). According to another story, the Pleiades were virgin com­ panions of Artemis, and, together with their mother Pleione, were pursued by the hunter Orion in Boeotia ; their prayer to be rescued from him was heard by the gods, and they were metamorphosed into doves (TreAeiaSes), and placed among the stars (Hygin. Poet. Astr. ii. 21 ; Schol. ad Apollon. Rhod. iii. 226 ; Find. Nem. ii. 17). The rising of the Pleiades in Italy was about the beginning of May, and their setting about the beginning of No­ vember. Their names are Electra, Maia, Taygete, Alcyone, Celaeno, Sterope, and Merope (Tzetz. ad Lye. 219, comp. 149 ; Apollod. iii. 10. § 1). The scholiast of Theocritus (xiii. 25) gives the follow­ ing different set of names: Coccymo, Plaucia, Protis, Parthemia, Maia, Stonychia, Lampatho. (Comp. Horn. //. xviii. 486, Od. v. 272 ; Ov. Fast. iv. 169, &c. ; hyades ; and Ideler, Untersuch. iiber die Sternennamen, p. 144,) [L. S.]

PLEIONE (IIATjioVrj), a daughter of Oceanus, and mother of the Pleiades by Atlas. (Apollod. iii. 10. § 1 ; Pind. Fragm. 53 ; comp. atlas ; plei­ ades.) [L. S.]

PLEISTAENETUS (Ittewrafreroy), an Athenian painter, the brother of Pheidias, is men­ tioned by Plutarch (De Glor. Athen. ii. p. 346) among the most celebrated painters, such as Apol- lodorus, Euphranor, Nicias, and Asclepiodorus, who painted victories, battles, and heroes ; but there is no other mention of him. [P. S.]

PLEISTARCHUS (ntelvrapxos). 1. King of Sparta, of the line of the Agids, was the son and successor of the heroic Leonidas, who was killed at Thermopylae, b. c. 480. He was a mere child at the time of his father's death, on which account the regency was assumed by his cousin Pausanias, who commanded the Greeks at Plataea. (Herod. ix. 10 ; Paus. iii. 4. § 9.) It appears that the latter continued to administer affairs in the name of the young king till his own death, about b. c. 467 (Thuc. i. 132). Whether Pleistarchus was then of age to take the reins of government into his own hands we know not, but Pausanias tells us that he died shortly after assuming the sove­reignty, while it appears, from the date assigned by Diodorus to the reign of his successor Pleisto-anax, that his death could not have taken place till the year b. c. 458. (Paus. iii. 5. § 1 ; Diod. xiii. 75 ; Clinton, F. H. vol. ii. p. 210.) No par­ticulars of his reign are recorded to us.

2. Son of Antipater and brother of Cassander, king of Macedonia. He is first mentioned in the year b. c. 313, when he was left by his brother in the command of Chalcis, to make head against Ptolemy, the general of Antigonus, when Cas­sander himself was recalled to the defence of Mace­donia, (Diod. xix. 77.) Again, in b. c. 302, when

PLEISTOANAX.

the general coalition was formed against Antigo­ nus, Pleistarchus was sent forward by his brother, with an army of 12,000 foot and 500 horse, to join Lysimachus in Asia. As the Hellespont and entrance of the Euxine was occupied by Deme­ trius, he endeavoured to transport his troops from Odessus direct to Heracleia, but lost by far the greater part on the passage, some having been cap­ tured by the enemy's ships, while others perished in a storm, in which Pleistarchus himself narrowly escaped shipwreck. (Id. xx. 112.) Notwith­ standing this misfortune, he seems to have ren­ dered efficient service to the confederates, for which he was rewarded after the battle of Ipsus (b. c. 301) by obtaining the province of Cilicia, as an independent government. This, however, he did not long retain, being expelled from it in the fol­ lowing year, by Demetrius, almost without oppo­ sition. (Plut. Demetr. 31.) Hereupon he returned to his brother Cassander, and from this time we hear no more of him. Pausanias mentions him as having been defeated by the Athenians in an action in which he commanded the cavalry and auxiliaries of Cassander ; but the period at which this event took place is uncertain. (Paus. i. 15. $ 1.) It is perhaps to him that the medical writer, Diocles of Carystus, addressed his work, which is cited more than once by Athenaeus, as rd Ttpds n\el(rTapxoi> 'Tyieird. (Athen. vii. p. 320, d, 324, f.) [E. H. B.]

PLEISTHENES (nxeuretvqs), a son of Atreus, and husband of Aerope or Eriphyle, the daughter of Catreus, by whom he became the father of Aga­memnon, Menelaus, and Anaxibia (Apollod. ii. 2. § 2 ; Schol. ad Eurip. Or. 5 ; Aeschyl. Agam. 1569 ; comp. agamemnon ; atreus). A son of Thyestes, who was killed by Atreus, was like­wise called Pleisthenes. (Hygin. Fab. 88.) [L. S.]

PLEISTOANAX (IU«<rroawi|, IIXei<rreS-j>a|), the nineteenth king of Sparta in the line of the Agidae, was the eldest son of the Pausanias who conquered at Plataea in b. c. 479. On the death of Pleistarchus, in b. c. 458, without issue, Pleistoanax succeeded to the throne, being yet a minor, so that in the expedition of the Lacedae­monians in behalf of the Dorians against Phocis, in b. c. 457, his uncle Nicomedes, son of Cleom-brotus, commanded for him. (Thuc. i. 107 ; Diod. xi. 79 ; Paus. i. 13, iii. 5.) In b. c. 445 he led in person an invasion into Attica, being however, in consequence of his youth, accompanied by Cle-andridas as a counsellor. The premature with­drawal of his army from the enemy's territory exposed both Cleandridas and himself to the sus­picion of having been bribed by Pericles, and, according to Plutarch, while Cleandridas fled from Sparta and was condemned to death in his ab­sence, the young king was punished by a heavy fine, which he was unable to pay, and was therefore obliged to leave his country. Pleistoanax remained nineteen years in exile, taking up his abode near the temple of Zeus on Mount Lycaeus in Arcadia, and having half his house within the sacred pre­cincts that he might enjoy the benefit of the sanctuary. During this period his son Pausanias, a minor, reigned in his stead. The Spartans at length recalled him in b. c. 426, in obedience to the repeated injunctions of the Delphic oracle,— " to bring back the seed of the demi-god, the son of Zeus ; else they should plough with a silver plough;" — and his restoration was accompanied

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