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On this page: Polyboea – Polybotes – Polybus

POLYBUS.

by Seybold, Lemgo, 1779—1783, 4 vols. 8vo. ; and the English by Hampton, 1772, 2 vols. 4to.: the latter is upon the whole a faithful version, and we have availed ourselves of it in the quotations which we have made above.

Livy did not use Polybius till he came to the second Punic war, but from that time he followed him very closely, and his history of the events after the termination of that war appears to be little more than a translation of his Greek prede­cessor. Cicero likewise seems to have chiefly fol­lowed Polybius in the account which he gives of the Roman constitution in his De Republica. The history of Polybius was continued by Poseidonius and Strabo. [proseidonius ; strabo.]

Besides the great historical work of which we have been speaking, Polybius wrote, 2. T/ie Life of Philopoemen in three books, to which he himself refers (x. 24). 3. A treatise on Tactics' (rot. irepl ras Ta£eis vTro/jLvri/nara}, which he also quotes (ix. 20), and to which Arrian (Tactic, init.) and Aelian (lactic, cc. 1, 3) allude ; 4. A History of the Numantine War, according to the statement of Cicero (ad Fam. v. 12) ; and 5, a small treatise De Habitatione sub Aequatore (irepl ttjs irfpl tov Io"n/J.€pwdv o</of(reft>s), quoted by Geminus (c. 13, in Petavius, Uranoluc/ium, vol. iii. p. 31, &c.), but it is not improbable that this formed part of the 34th book of the History, which was entirely de­voted to geography.

The reader will find some valuable information respecting the character of Polybius as an historian in the following works;—Lucas, UeberPolyUus Dar-stellung des Aetolischen Bundes, Konigsberg, 1827 ; Merleker, Die Geschichte des Aetolisch-Achaeischen Bundesgenossen-Krieyes, Konigsberg, 1831 ; K. W. Nitzsch, Polybius: zur Gescliiclite antiker Politik und Historioyraphie, Kiel, 1842 ; Brands-tiiter, Die Geschichten des Aetolischen Landes, Volkes und Bundes, nebst einer historiographischen Abliandlung ueber Polybius, Berlin, 1844.

2. Of sardis, a Greek grammarian of unknown date, some of whose works have been printed by Iriarte (Gated. Cod. MSS. Biblioth. Matrit. vol. i. pp. U7: &c., 379, &c.)andWalz (Rhetores Grae.ci, vol. viii.).

POLYBOEA (noXifeota), the name of two mythical personages, one a sister of Hiacynthus (Pans. iii. 19. § 4), and the other the wife of Actor. (Eustath. ad Horn. p. 321.) [L. S.]

POLYBOTES (IIo\u§arr7]s), a giant, who in the contest between the gods and giants was pur­ sued by Poseidon across the sea as far as the island of Cos. There Poseidon tore away a part of the island, which was afterwards called Nisy- rion, and throwing it upon the giant buried him under it. (Apollod. i. 6. § 2 ; Paus. i. 2. § 4 ; Strab. x. p. 489.) [L. S.]

POLYBUS (no'Au§os.) 1. A Trojan, a son of Antenor, mentioned in the Iliad, (xi. 59.)

2. An Ithacan, father of the suitor Eurymachus, was slain bv the swine-herd Eumaeus. (Horn. Od. i. 399, xxif. 284.)

3. The son of Alcandra, at Thebes in Egypt; he was connected with Menelaus by ties of hos­pitality. (Horn. Od. iv. 126.)

4. One of the' Phaeacians. (Horn. Od. viii. 373)

5. The king of Corinth,, by whom Oedipus was brought up. He was the husband of Periboea or Merope. (Soph. Oed. Rex, 770 ; Apollod. iii 5.

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POLYBUS.

§ 7.) Pausanias (ii. 6. § 3), makes him king of Sicyoh, and describes him as a son of Hermes and Chthonophyle, and as the father of Lysianassa, whom he gave in marriage to Talaus, king of the Argives. (Comp. oedipus.)

6. The father of Glaucus by Euboea. (Athen. vii. p. 296.) [L. S.]

POLYBUS* (H6\v€os\ one of the pupils of Hippocrates, who was also his son-in-law, and lived in the island of Cos, in the fourth cen­tury b. c. Nothing is known of the events of his life, except that, with his brothers-in-law, Thessalus and Dracon, he was one of the found­ers of the ancient medical sect of the dog-matici) ; that he was sent abroad by Hippocrates, with his fellow-pupils, during the time of the plague, to assist different cities with his medical skill (Thessal. Orat. p. 843), and that he after­wards remained in his native country (Galen, Comment, in Hippocr. " De Nat. Horn" i. praef. vol. xv. p. 12). According to Galen (I.e.), he followed implicitly the opinions and mode of prac­tice of Hippocrates ; but the strict accuracy of this assertion has been doubted. He has been sup­posed, both by ancient and modern critics, to be the author of several treatises in the Hippocratic collection. Choulant (Handb. der Bucherkunde fur die Aeltere Medicin) specifies the following:—1. riepi &vaios 'AvBpwirov, De Natura Homines; 2. Ilepl Toi/rjs, De Genitura ; 3. Hep! Qijffios Tlai-Si'ou, De Natura Pueri; 4. Ilepl AiaiTfis 'Yyiewfis, De Salubri Victus Ratione ; 5. Hspl TlaOwv, De AJfectionibus ; and 6. Tlepl t£v 'Evros TlaOwv, De In-ternis Affectionibus: Clemens Alexandrinus (Strom. vi. p. 290) attributes to him the treatise, Ilept 'OKTa^j/ou, De Octimestri Partu ; and Plutarch (De Philosoph. Plac. v. 18) quotes him as the author of that Ilepl 'ETrraiai]i'()v, De Septimestri Partu. Of these, however, M. Littre (Oeuvres d1 Hippocr. vol. i. p. 345, &c.) considers that only the first, and perhaps the fourth, are to be attributed to Polybus [hippocrates, p. 487], although Galen says that the treatise De Natura Hominis was the work of Hippocrates himself (Comment, in Hippocr. "De Nat. Horn." i. praef. vol. xv. pp. 11, 12). Polybus is several times mentioned by Galen, chiefly in connection with different works in the Hippocratic Collection (De Foet. Format.-c. 1. vol. iv. p. 653, De Hippocr. et Plat. Deer. vi. 3, vol. v. p. 529, De Diffic. Revpir. iii. 1,13, vol. vii. pp. 891, 960, Com­ment, in Hippocr. *' De Nat. Horn." ii. 19, vol. xv. p. 164, Comment, in Hippocr. " De Sal. Vict. Rat" praef. and c. 33, vol. xv. pp. 175, 223, Comment, in Hippocr. " De Humor" i. praef. vol. xvi. p. 3, Comment, in Hippocr. " Aphor" vi. 1, vol. xviii. pt. i. p. 8) : his name also occurs in Celsus (De Med. v. 20. § 2, 26. § 23, vi. 7. § 3, pp. 91, 100, 127), Caelius Aurelianus (De Morb. Aciit. iii. 9, 15, pp, 218, 227), and Pliny (H. N. xxxi. in fine). A collection of the treatises attributed to Polybus was published in a Latin translation, 1544, 4to. Basil., per J. Oporinum ; and in Italian by P. Lauro, 1545, 4to. Venice. A Latin translation of the treatise De Salubri Victus Ratione, was published in a separate form by J. Placotomus (Bretsclmeider], 1561,12mo. Antwerp, and is to be found appended to the Reyi-

* In the spurious oration attributed to Thessalus (ap. Hippocr. Opera, vol. iii. p. 843), and also in some Latin works, he i» called Polybius^ but this is probably a mistake.

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