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(Diog. Laert. iii. 8.) in which Plato and Isocrates were the speakers, and which is perhaps preserved in the book Repi Tron^aTwi/ discovered at Pompeii, and an historical work cited by Mar-cellinus in his Life of Thucydides (§29) under the title of Ilepl laropias. (For further particulars, see Preller, Disputatio de Praxipliane Peripatetico inter antiquissimos grammaticos nobili, Dorp. 1842.)

2. A Scholiast on Sophocles. (Schol. ad Soph. Oed. Col 894.)

PR AX IT AS (npa|mis), a Lacedaemonian, who, in b. c. 393, was stationed as polemarch, with his mora, at Sicvon. The Corinthians, Pa-

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simelus and Alcimanes, being desirous of restoring Corinth to her connection with Lacedaemon, of­ fered to admit Praxitas by night within the long walls that joined Corinth with Lechaeum. In this they succeeded, and in the engagement which took place next day with the Argive forces, the La- codgemonians slaughtered great numbers of the latter. After this victory, Praxitas, having been joined by his allies, demolished the long walls, and then crossing the isthmus, took and garrisoned Sidus and Crommyon. (Xen. Hellen. iv. 4. § 7 —13.) [C. P. M.]

PRAXITELES (npoltreAiyy), one of the most distinguished artists of ancient Greece, was both a statuary in bronze and a sculptor in marble; but his most celebrated works were in the latter ma­terial. (Plin. PI. N. xxxiv. 8. s. 19. § 10, xxxvi. 5. s. 4. § 5,) It is remarkable how little is known of his personal history. Neither his country, nor the name of his father or of his instructor, nor the date of his birth or of his death, is mentioned by any ancient author. As to his country, sundry conjectures have been founded on detached pas­sages of some of the later ancient authors, but none of them are sustained by sufficient evidence even to deserve discussion (see Sillig, Cat. A rt. s. v.): all that is known with certainty is, that Praxiteles, if not a native, was a citizen of Athens, and that his career as an artist was intimately connected with that city. This fact is not only indicated by the constant association of his name with the later Attic school of sculpture, and by Pliny's reference to his numerous works in the Cerameicus at Athens, but there is an inscription still extant, in which he is expressly called an Athenian. (Bb'ckh, Corp. Inscr. No. 1604).

With respect to his date, he is mentioned by Pliny (If. N. xxxiv. 8. s. 19) as contemporary with Euphranor at the 104th Olympiad, b. c. 364. Pausanias (viii. 9. § 1) places him in the third generation after Alcamenes, the disciple of Phei­dias ; which agrees very well with the date of Pliny, since Alcamenes flourished between 01. 83 and 94, b. c. 448—404. Vitruvius (vii. Praef. § 13) states that he was one of the artists who adorned the Mausoleum of Artemisia ; and, if so, he must have lived at least as late as 01. 107, B, c. 350. If we were to accept as genuine the will of Theophrastus, in which he requests Praxi­teles to finish a statue of Nicomachus (Diog. Laert. v. 14), we must extend the time of Praxiteles to about the year b. c. 287, in which Theophrastus died; but it is not safe to rest much upon such documents, occurring in the work of Diogenes, nor is it likely that Praxiteles lived so late. It is most probable that the date assigned by Pliny is about that of the beginning of the artistic career of Praxiteles.


The position occupied by Praxiteles in the his tory of ancient art can be denned without much difficulty. He stands, with Scopas, at the head of the later Attic school, so called in contradis­tinction to the earlier Attic school of Pheidias. Without attempting those sublime impersonations of divine majest}T, in which Pheidias had been so inimitably successful, Praxiteles was unsurpassed in the exhibition of the softer beauties of the human form, especially in the female figure. With­out aiming at ideal majesty, be attained to a per­fect ideal gracefulness ; and, in this respect, he occupies a position in his own art very similar to that of Apelles in painting. In that species of the art to which he devoted himself, he was as perfect a master as Pheidias was in his depart­ment, though the species itself was immeasurably inferior. In fact, the character of each of these artists was a perfect exponent of the character of their respective times. The heroic spirit and the religious earnestness of the period preced­ing the Peloponnesian War gave birth to the productions of the one; the prevailing love of pleasure and sensual indulgences found its appro­priate gratification in the other. The contrast was marked in their subjects as well as in their style. The chryselephantine statue of Zeus at Olympia realised, as nearly as art can realise, the illusion of the actual presence of the supreme divinity ; and the spectator who desired to see its prototype could find it in no human form, but only in the sublimest conception of the same deity which the kindred art of poetry had formed: but the Cnidian Aphrodite of Praxiteles, though an ideal representation, expressed the ideal only of sensual charms and the emotions connected with them, and was avowedly modelled from a courtezan. Thus also the subjects of Praxiteles in general were those divinities whose attributes were con­nected with sensual gratification, or whose forms were distinguished by soft and youthful beauty, — Aphrodite and Eros, Apollo and Dionysus. His works were chiefly imitated from the most beau­tiful living models he could find ; but he scarcely ever executed any statues professedly as portraits. Quintilian (xii. 10) praises him and Lysippus for the natural character of their works.

His works are too numerous to be all mentioned here individually. The most important of them will be described according to the department of mythology from which their subjects were taken.

1. Statues of Aphrodite. By far the most ce­lebrated work of the master, and that in which he doubtless put forth all his power, was the marble statue of Aphrodite, which was distinguished from other statues of the goddess by the name of the Cnidians, who purchased it. The well-known story, related by Pliny (H. JV. xxxvi. 5. s. 4. § 5), is that the artist made two statues of Aphrodite, of which the one was draped, the other not. In his own opinion, they were of equal value, for he offered them for sale together at the same price. The people of Cos, who had always possessed a character for severe virtue, purchased the draped statue, " severum id ac pudicum arbitrantes;" the other was bought by the Cnidians, and its fame almost entirely eclipsed the merits of the rival work. It was always esteemed the most perfectly beautiful of the statues of the goddess. According to Pliny, it surpassed all other works, not only of Praxiteles, but in the whole world ; and many

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