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no small difficulty in raising the money to pay this dowry ; and his letters to Atticus frequently allude to his negotiations on this subject with Publilius, the brother of his late wife. (Cic. ad Fam. iv. 14, ad A tt. xii. 32, xiii. 34, 47, xiv. 19, xvi. 2, 6 ; Dion Cass. xlvi. 18; Plut. Cic. 41; Quintil. vi. 3. §75.) Dion Cassius states (Ivii. 15) that Vibius Rufus, in the reign of Tiberius, married Cicero's widow, by whom we are probably to understand Publilia, and not Terentia, as many have done. (Drumann, Geschichte Roms, vol. vi. pp. 694—696.)
PUBLI-'LIA GENS, plebeian. The ancient form of the name was Poblilius, which we find in the Capitoline Fasti. In many manuscripts and editions of the ancient writers we find the name of Publilius corrupted into Publius ; and Glandorp, in his Onomasticon, has fallen into the mistake of giving most of the Publilii under the head of Publii (pp. 727, 728). The Publilii were first brought into notice as early as b. c. 472, by the celebrated tribune Volero Publilius, and they subsequently obtained the highest dignities of the state. The only family of this gens that bore a separate cognomen was that of philo ; and it was one of this family, Q. Publilius Philo, who obtained the consulship in b. c. 339. The greatness of the gens became extinct with this Philo; and after his death we do not read of any persons of the name who attained to importance in the state. Volscus was an agnomen of the Philones. [philo, No. 1.]
PUBLFLIUS. 1. volero publilius, the author of an important change in the Roman constitution. He had served with distinction as a first centurion, and, accordingly, when he was called upon to enlist as a common soldier at the levy in B. c. 473, he refused to obey. The consuls ordered the lictors to seize him and scourge him. He appealed to the tribunes, but as they took no notice of the outrage, he resisted the lictors, and was supported by the people. The consuls were driven out of the forum, and the senate was obliged to bow before the storm. Publilius had acquired so much popularity by his courageous conduct, that he was elected tribune of the plebs for the following year, b. c. 472. He did not, however, bring the consuls of the previous year to trial, as had been expected, but, sacrificing his private wrongs to the public welfare, he brought forward a measure to secure the plebeians greater freedom in the election of the tribunes. They had been previously elected in the comitia cerituriata, where the patricians had a great number of votes ; and Publilius accordingly proposed that they should be elected in future by the comitia tributa. This measure was undoubtedly
proposed to the comitia tributa, but the patricians, by their violent opposition, prevented the tribes from coming to any vote respecting it this year. In the following year, b. c. 471, Publilius was re-elected tribune, and together with him C. Laetorius, a man of still greater resolution. He now brought forward fresh measures. He proposed that the aediles, as well as the tribunes, should be elected by the tribes, and, what was still more important, that the tribes should have the power of deliberating and determining in all matters affecting the whole nation, and not such only as might concern the plebs. These measures were still more violently resisted by the patricians ; but though the consul Ap. Claudius had recourse to force he could not prevent the tribes from passing them. Some said that the
number of the tribunes was now for the first time raised to five, having been only two previously. (Liv. ii. 55—58 ; Dionys. ix. 41, &c. ; Zonar. vii. 17 ; Niebuhr, Hist, of Rome, rol. ii. p. 211, &c.)
3. Q. publilius, was appointed one of the triumviri mensarii in b. c. 352. (Liv. vii. 21.)
4. C. publilius, a youth who had given himself up to slavery (as a nexus), in order to pay the debts of his father, and whose cruel treatment by the usurer, L. Papirius, so roused the indignation of the people, as to lead to the enactment, in b. o, 326, of the Lex Poetelia Papiria, which abolished imprisonment for debt in the case of thenexi (Liv. viii. 28). Valerius Maximus (vi. 1. § 9) calls this youth T. Veturius.
5. T. publilius, one of the first plebeian augurs created on the passing of the Ogulnia lex, in b. c. 300. (Liv. x.9.)
6. publilius, the brother of Cicero's second wife, with whom Cicero had considerable negotiation respecting the repayment of Publilia's dowry, after he had divorced her in b. c. 45. (Cic. ad Att. xiii. 34, 47, xiv. 19, xvi. 2, 6.)
7. publilius, a Roman comic poet, only known by the quotation of a single line by Nonius (s. i\ latibulet}, from one of his comedies entitled Pitta-lores. As he is not mentioned elsewhere, it has been supposed that we ought to read Publius (that is, Publius Syrus) in this passage of Nonius.
PUBLIUS, a Roman praenomen, is found in many manuscripts and editions instead of Publilius. [publilia gens.]
PUBLIUS, is placed in the lists of artists as a Roman painter of animals, on the strength of an epigram of Martial (i. 109), in which the poet ce lebrates the beauty of an Issian bitch, and of its portrait; but whether Publius was the owner or the painter of the animal, or both, is not perfectly clear. [P. S.j
PUBLIUS, a physician who is quoted by An- dromachus (ap. Galen. De Compos. Medicam. sec. Loc.ix. 4, De Compos. Medicam. sec. Gen. ii. 15, v. 13, vol. xiii. pp. 281, 533, 842), and who must therefore have lived in or before the first century after Christ. Pie is by some persons supposed to have been one of Galen's tutors, but this is un doubtedly a mistake ; as, besides the chronologic;)! difficulty, it is probable that in the passage which has given rise to this opinion (De Compos. Medicam. sec. Gen. v. 14, vol. xiii. p. 852) Galen is quoting the words of Asclepiades Pharmacion, and not speaking in his own person ; and also that the term 6 naQ^y^rris is used merely as a sort of hono rary title [comp. Lucius, p. 827]. He is quoted also by Marcellus Empiricus, De Medicam. c. 29, p. 378. [W. A.G.J
PUDICPTTA (AiSa's), a personification of modesty, was worshipped both in Greece and at