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On this page: Saccus – Sacerdos – Sacrovir – Sadales



most eminent of the ancient Greek musicians, is mentioned by Plutarch (de Mus. 9, p. 1134, b.) as one of the masters who established at Sparta the second great school or 8t)'le (Kardffracris) of music, of which Thaletas was the founder, as Terpander had been of the first. His age is marked and his eminence is attested by the statement of Pausanias (x. 7. § 3), that he gained the prize for flute-playing at the first of the musical contests which the Amphictyons established in connection with the Pythian games (01. 47. 3, b. c, 5.90), and also at the next two festivals in succession (01. 48. 3, 49. 3, b. c. 586, 582). From the manner, however, in which his name is connected with those of Polymnestus and Alcman, in several passages, and perhaps too from the cessation of his Pythian vic­tories, we may infer that these victories were among the latest events of his life. Pansanias elsewhere (ii. 22. § 9) speaks of these Pythian victories as having appeased the anger against the music of the flute, which Apollo had conceived on account of his contest with Silenus (comp. mar-syas). Plutarch, relating the same fact, adds that Sacadas was the author of a new nome, in which the three modes of music were combined ; the first strophe sung by the chorus being in the Dorian mode, the second in the Phrygian, and the third in the Lydian, whence the nome was called the tripartite (rpi/xepT??) ; but that another au­thority ascribed its invention to Clonas. (Plut. de Mus. 8, p. 1134, a.) Pollux (iv. 79) speaks expressly of a Pythian nome as the composition of Sacadas. Plutarch also informs us that, in his rhythms, Sacadas, like Polymnestus, adhered to the pure and beautiful style which had been introduced by Terpander. (Ih. 12, p. 1135, c.)

In the time of Sacadas most of the musicians were poets also, though the connection between the two arts had not become so close as it was afterwards. The kind of poetry which these masters cultivated was chiefly, if not exclusively, the elegy. Accordingly we find Sacadas mentioned as a good poet^ and a composer of elegies (Plut. /. c.). It was, however, in the music of the flute alone, unaccompanied by the voice, that he gained his Pythian victories. At the same games there was another and a different prize for elegies sung to the music of the flute ; and this was gained by Echernbrotus of Arcadia. The music of Sacadas was auletic, that of Echembrotus aulodic. Pau­sanias names the contest in which Sacadas gained his victories, avXyua to irvducov (ii. 22. § 9). From the same passage we learn that a monu­ment was erected to Sacadas in his native city. His statue also had a place among those of the poets and musicians on Mount Helicon ; and, from a statement made by Pausanias in connection with this statue, we learn that Pindar composed a proem in praise of Sacadas and his flute-playing. (Pans. ix. 30. § 2.) Plutarch (de Mus. 8, p. 11 34, a.) also refers to the mention of him by Pindar. Athenaeus (xiii, p. 610, c.) .ascribes to Sacadas a poem on the taking of Troy ('ITu'ou Treptns), at least if the emendation of Sch weighauser on the various corrupt forms of the name in that pas­sage be correct, which is not universally admitted. If Sacadas really composed such a poem, it must have resembled the epico-lyric poems of Stesi-chorus ; but the account given of it by Athenaeus can hardly be understood as applying to the work of a flute-player and elegiac poet. (Muller, Gcsch.


d. Griech. Lit. vol. i. pp. 291, 292 ; Ulrici, Gtsch. d. Hellen. Dicktk. vol. ii. pp. 431—433.) [P. S.]

SACCUS, an agnomen of L. Titinius Pansa. [pansa]

SACERDOS, CARSI'DIUS, was accused in A. d. 23 of having assisted Tacfarinas with corn, but was acquitted. He was condemned in a. d. 37 to deportatio in insulam, as one of the accom­plices of the adulteries of Albucilla, at which time he is spoken of as a man of praetorian rank. His name occurs in some editions of Tacitus, under the form of Grasidius. (Tac. Ann. iv. 13, vi. 48.)

SACERDOS, TI. CLAU'DIUS, one of the consules suffecti in a. d. 100. (Fasti.)

SACERDOS, JU'LIUS, slain by Caligula. (Dion Cass. lix. 22.)

SACERDOS, C. LICI'NIUS. 1. A Roman eques. When he appeared with his horse before the censors in b. c. 142, Scipio Africanus the younger, who was one of the censors, said that he knew that Sacerdos had committed perjury, but as no one came forward to accuse him, Scipio al­lowed him to pass on, as he would not act as accuser, witness, and judge. (Cic. pro Clusnt.Ati ; Val. Max. iv. 1. § 10.)

2. The grandson of the preceding, bore an un­blemished character. He was praetor b. c. 75, and in the following year had the government of Sicily, in which he was succeeded by Verres. He sub­sequently served as legate under Q. Metellus in Crete, and was a candidate for the consulship at the same comitia in which Cicero and Antonius were elected. Cicero frequently mentions him in his orations against Verres, and contrasts his up­right administration of Sicily with the corrupt and unjust proceedings of his successor. (Cic. Verr. i. 10*, 46, 50, ii. 28, iii. 50, 92, pro Plane. 11 ; Ascon. in Tog. Cand. p. 82, ed. Orelli.)



SACERDOS, TINE1US. 1. C., consul under Antoninus Pius in A. d. 158 with Sex. Sulpicius Tertullus. (Fasti.)

2. Q., consul in A. d. 219 with the emperor Elagabalus. (Fasti.)

M. SACRATIVIR, of Capua, a Roman eques, who fell fighting on Caesar's side at the battle of Dyrrhachium, b. c. 48. (Caes. B. C. iii. 71.)

SACROVIR, JU'LIUS, and JU'LIUS FLO-RUS, two Gauls, the former an Aeduan and the latter a Treviran, were both of noble family, and had received tlje Roman citizenship on account of their services. These chiefs in the reign of Ti­berius, a. d. 21, determined to excite an insur­rection of the Gauls, who were burdened with debts, and ripe for revolt. Florus, who had under­taken to stir up the Belgae, collected a, force con­sisting of debtors and clients, and was making for the wood Arduenna, when he was surrounded by the Roman legions, and seeing no way of escape, put an end to his own life. Sacrovir was at first more successful ; he collected a large armv amonu

* o •• • .

the Aedui and the surrounding people, but was defeated by the Roman legate Silius, in the neigh­bourhood of Augustodunum (Autun), and there­upon he likewise destroyed himself. (Tac. Ann. iii. 40—46, iv. 18, Hist, iv" 57.)

SADALES, the son of Cotys, king of Thrace, was sent by his father to the assistance of Pom-pey, and fought on his side against Caesar, in b. c. 48. In conjunction with Scipio, he defeated L.

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