Scanned text contains errors.
surrounded with a woollen riband. (Virg. A<sn. vii. 179; Arnob. vi. 12; Macrob. I. c.; Martial, xi. 6.1.) In the pediment of the temple of Saturn were seen two figures resembling Tritons, with horns, and whose lower extremities grew out of the ground (Macrob. $rf. i. 8) ; the temple itself contained the pub lic treasury, and many laws also were deposited in it. (Serv. ad Aen. viii. 319.) It must be re marked in conclusion that Saturn and Ops were not only the protectors of agriculture, but all vege tation was under their care, as well as every thing which promoted their growth. (Macrob. Sat. i. 7, 10 ; comp. Hartung, Die Religion der Romer, vol. ii. p. 122, &c.) [L. S.]
SATYRION or SA/TYRON (Zarvpluv, 2a-n5pwi>), a Socratic philosopher, of whom no thing is known, beyond the bare mention of his name by M. Antoninus (x. 31). [P. S.] SATY'RIUS, artist. [satureius.] SATY'RIUS, literary. [satyrus.] SA'TYRUS (Sa-rypos), the name of a class of beings in Greek mythology, who are inseparably connected with the worship of Dionysus, and re present the luxuriant vital powers of nature. In their appearance they somewhat resembled goats or rams, whence many ancients believed that the word (rdrvpos was identical with rlrvpos9 a ram. (Schol. ad Theocrit. iii. 2, vii. 72; Aelian, V. H. i\\. 40 ; comp. Eustath. ad Horn. p. 1157; Hesych. s. v.; and Strab. x. p. 46%6.) Homer does not men tion any Satyr, while Hesiod (Fragm. 94, ed. Gb'ttling) speaks of them in the plural and describes them as a race good for nothing and unfit for work, and in a passage quoted by Strabo (x. p. 471) he states that the Satyrs, Nymphs and Curetes were the children of the five daughters of Hecataeus and the daughter of Phoroneus. The more common statement is that the Satyrs were the sons of Her mes and Iphthima (Nonn. Dionys. xiv. 113), or of the Naiads (Xenoph. Sympos. v. 7); Silen also calls them his own sons. (Eurip. Cyd. 13, 82,269.)
The appearance of the Satyrs is described by later writers as robust, and rough, though with various modifications, but their general features are as follows : the hair is bristly, the nose round and somewhat turned upwards, the ears pointed at the top like those of animals (whence they are sometimes called i&r/pes, Eurip. Cycl. 624); they generally have little horns, or at least two hornlike protuberances (0>jpea), and at or near the end of the back there appears a little tail like that of a horse or a goat. In works of art they were represented at different stages of life; the older ones, commonly called Seilens or Silens (Paus. i. 23. § 6), usually have bald heads and beards, and the younger ones are termed Satyrisci (Sarupur/coi, Theocrit. iv. 62, xxvii. 48). All kinds of satyrs belong to the retinue of Dionysus (Apollod. iii. 5. § 1 ; Strab. x. p. 468; Ov. Fast. iii. 737, Ars Am. i. 542, iii. 157), and are always described as fond of wine, whence they often appear either with a cup or a thyrsus in their hand (Athen. xi. p. 484), and of every kind of sensual pleasure, whence they are !i eon sleeping, playing musical instruments or engaged in voluptuous dances with nymphs. (Apollod. ii. 1. § 4; Horat. Carm.ii. 19. 3, i. 1. 30; Ov. Met. i. 692, xiv. 637; Philostr. Vit. Apott. vi. 27; Nonn. Dionys. xii. 82.) Like all the gods dwelling in forests and fields, they were greatly dreaded by mortals. (Virg. Edoq. vi. 13; Theocrit. xiii. 44;0v. Her. iv. 49.)
Later writers, especially the Roman poets, con found the Satyrs with the Pans and the Italian Fauns, and accordingly represent them with larger horns and goats' feet (Horat. Carm. ii. ] 9. 4; Pro- pert, iii. 15. 34; Ov. Met. i. 193, vi. 392, xiv 637), although originally they were quite distinct kinds of beings, and in works of art, too, they are kept quite distinct. Satyrs usually appear with flutes, the thyrsus, syrinx, the shepherd staff, cups or bags filled with wine; they are dressed with the skins of animals, and wear wreaths of vine, ivy or fir. Representations of them are still very mi - merous, but the most celebrated in antiquity was the Satyr of Praxiteles at Athens (Paus. i. 20. § 1; Plin. //. N. xxxiv. 8, s. 19; comp. Heyne, Antiquar. Aufsatze, ii. p. 53, &c.; Voss, Mytliol. Briefe, ii. p. 284, &c. ; C. 0. Mliller, Ancient Art and its Remains, § 385, Eng. Transl.; and the article praxiteles, p. 521.) [L. S.J
SATYRUS (Sarupos), historical.
.1. An officer who was sent out by Ptolemy Philadelphus, king of Egypt, on an expedition to explore the western coasts of the Red Sea, where he founded the city of Philotera. (Strab. xvii. p. 769.)
2. An ambassador of the Ilienses, who was sent to Rome in b. c. 187, to intercede with the senate in favour of the Lycians. (Polyb. xxiii. 3.)
4. One of the ambassadors sent by the Achaeans to Rome in b. c. 164, to intercede with the senate for the liberation of the Achaean citizens who had been sent to Rome at the instigation of Callicrates, or, at least, that they should be brought to a fair trial. The embassy was dismissed with a haughty refusal. (Polyb. xxxi. 6, 8.)
5. A leader of insurgent slaves in Sicily, during the second servile war in that island. After the defeat and death of Athenion, B. c. 101 [athe- nion], Satyrus, with the remains of the insur gents, shut himself up in a strong fortress, but was closely blockaded by the consul M'. Aquillius, and at length compelled by famine to surrender, with about 1000 of his followers. They were all car ried to Rome, and condemned to fight with wild beasts in the amphitheatre, but preferred dyirg by one another's hands, and Satyrus put an end to his own life. (Diod. xxxvi. Exc. Phot. pp. 536, 537.) [E. H. B.]
SATYRUS (Sarupos), kings of Bosporus.
1. satyrus I. was a son of Spartacus L, king of Bosporus. According to the statement of Dio-dorus (xiv. 93), that he reigned fourteen years, we must assign his accession to the year b. c. 407 or 406 ; but as the same authority allots only four years to the reign of Seleucus, there is a gap in the chronology of twenty years, which are unaccounted for. There is little doubt that there is an error in the numbers of Diodorus, but in which of the two reigns it is impossible to say. M. de Boze, on the other hand, supposes (Mem. de PAcad. des Inscr. vol. vi. p. 555) this interval to have been filled by another Spartacus, and that it was this second king, and not Spartacus I., who was the father of Satyrus : but this seems a very forced and unnecessary hypothesis. Our knowledge of the events of his reign is confined to the fact that he encouraged those friendly and commercial re-
3 a 4