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Cass. xlvii. 35, 36, xlviii. 24, 25 ; Appian, B. C. iv. 87, v. 102—107, Syr. 51 ; Veil. Pat. ii. 78 ; Liv. Epit. 127 ; Flor. iv. 9.)
2. The brother of the preceding, served under him as quaestor, in Syria, and had the command, as it appears, of the town of Apameia, which he continued to keep while all the surrounding garrisons surrendered to Labienus, till he heard a report of the death of his brother, when he likewise surrendered Antioch. (Dion Cass. xlviii. 25.)
SAXA, Q. VOCO'NIUS, tribune of the plebs, b. c. 169, proposed the Voconia lex, which was supported by the elder Cato, who spoke in its favour, when he was sixty-five years of age (Liv. Epit 41 ; Cic. de Senect. 5, pro Balb. 8, Verr. Act. i. 48). Respecting the contents of this important lex, see Diet, of Ant s. v.
SAXULA, CLU'VIUS. [cluvius, No. 1.]
SCAB A (2/ccu'a), a daughter of Danaus (Apollod. ii. 1. § 5), was married to Archander, who, with his brother Architeles, emigrated from Phthiotis in Thessaly to Argos. (Paus. vii. 1. § 3 ; compare automate.) [L. S.]
SCAEVA, a slave of Q. Croton, was rewarded with his liberty on account of his killing Saturninus, the tribune of the plebs, in b. c. 100. (Cic. pro C.Rabir. 11.)
SCAEVA, CA'SSIUS, a centurion in Caesar's army at the battle of Dyrrhachium, distinguished himself by his extraordinary feats of valour in that engagement. He maintained possession of the post with which he was intrusted, although he lost an eye, was pierced through both his shoulder and thigh, and his shield was transfixed in a hundred and twenty places (Caes. B. C. iii. 53 ; Suet. Goes. 68 ; Flor. iv. 2. § 40 ; Val. Max. iii. 2. § 23, who calls him M. Cassius Scaeva ; Appian, B, C. ii. 60, whose account is inaccurate, and must be corrected from the preceding authorities). Scaeva survived his wounds, and is mentioned by Cicero as one of the partisans of Caesar, just before and after the death of the latter. (Cic. ad Alt. xiii. 23, xiv. 10.)
SCAEVA, DI'DIUS, one of the generals of the Vitellian troops, slain at the taking of the Capitol in a. d. 79. (Tac. Hist. iii. 73.)
SCAEVINUS, FLA'VIUS, a senator of dissolute life, took part in the conspiracy of Piso against Nero. It was through Milichus, the freed-man of Scaevinus that the conspiracy was discovered by Nero. Milichus was liberally rewarded by the emperor, and Scaevinus put to death. (Tac. Ann. xv. 49, 54, 55, 70.)
SCAEVOLA, Q. CERVI'DIUS, a R,oman jurist, appears to have been giving Responsa in the time of Antoninus Pius (Dig. 34. tit. 1. s. 13. § 1). Scaevola speaks of constitutions of Verus and Marcus Antoninus, in such terms as imply that they were then living (Dig. 2. tit. 15. s. 3, 50. tit. 1. s. 24) ; and he was employed by Marcus as a legal adviser (Jul. Capitol. Marc, c. 11, usus est Scaevola praecipue juris perito) ; and Scaevola himself, as quoted by Ulpian, reports a judgment of Marcus in his auditorium (ad Set. Trebell. Dig. 36. tit. 1. s. 22). Whether Scaevola survived Marcus is uncertain. As to the passage in the
Digest, 32. s. 39, in which the expression " Impe-rator noster Divus Marcus" occurs, see the note in Zimmern (Gesckichte des Rom. PrivatrecJits9 vol. i. p. 360, No. 7).
Septimius Severus, afterwards emperor, and the jurist Papinian, were the hearers of Scaevola (Spar-tian. Caracalla^ 8). He appears to have been living when Septimius was emperor and Paulus was active as a jurist (Dig. 28. tit. 2. s. ]9); and in one passage (Dig. 44. tit. 3. s. 14) he speaks of a rule of law being confirmed by a rescript of Severus and Caracalla.
Some of his Responsa are given in a single word. His style is compressed, and hence has been sometimes considered obscure, but he left an illustrious name, which he earned well. In the Theodosian Code Cervidius Scaevola is called " Prudentissi-mus omnium Jurisconsultorum." His writings which are excerpted in the Digest were: — Diges-torum Libri quadraginta, which often contain the same matter that is given more briefly in his Re-sponsorum Libri sex (Bluhme, Zeitschrift^ &c. vol. iv. p. 325, Die Ordnung der Fragmente in den Pandectentiteln) ; Viginti Libri Quaestionum ; Libri quatuor Regularum ; and a Liber singularis Quaestionum publice (that is judicially) tractarum. There are 307 excerpts from Scaevola in the Digest. The Florentine Index also mentions a Liber Singu-laris de Quaestione Familiae. He made notes on Julianus and Marcellus, which are merely cited in the Digest. The Liber Singularis opuii/ must be attributed to Q. Mucius Scaevola the pontifex. Claudius Tryphoninus and Paulus made notes on Scaevola. He is often cited by these and other jurists.
Puchta (Inst. i. § 100) does not adopt the opinion of Bluhme above referred to, which is in fact the opinion of Conradi. He observes, that "in the collection of Responsa the facts are stated with the necessary completeness, but the opinions generally in few words and without a statement of the grounds ; the Quaestiones were appropriated to the complete examination and justification of the opinions ; the Digests also contain Responsa, sometimes with a short notice of the opinion, sometimes, as in the Responsa, with an indication of the reasons."
Grotius (Vitae Jurisconsultorum) has some re marks on the method of Scaevola. See Cujacius, Cervidii Scaevolae Responsa^ vol. vi. ed. Naples, 1758. [G.L.]
SCAEVOLA, MU'CIUS. 1. C. Mucius scaevola. When King Porsenna was blockading Rome, C. Mucius, a young man of the patrician class, went out of the city with the approbation of the senate, after telling them that he was not going for plunder, but, with the aid of the gods, to perform some nobler deed. With a dagger hid beneath his dress, he approached the place where Porsenna was sitting, with a secretary (scriba) by his side, dressed nearly in the same style as the king himself. Mistaking the secretary for the king, Mucius killed him on the spot. He was seized by the king's guards, and brought before the royal seat, when he declared his name, and his design to kill the king himself, and told him that there were many more Romans ready to attempt his life. The king in his passion and alarm ordered him to be burnt alive, unless he explained more clearly what he meant by his vague threats, upon which Mucius thrust his right hand