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After the Perusinian war, b. c. 40, Octavian feared that Sex. Porapey would form an alliance with Antony to crush him ; and, accordingly, on the advice of Maecenas, he married Scribonia, in order to gain the favour of Pompey, and of his father-in-law Libo. Scribonia was much older than Octavian, and he never had any affection for her ; and, accordingly, he did not hesitate to divorce her in the following year, b.c. 3.9, on the very day in which she had borne him a daughter, Julia, in order to marry Livia, more especially as he was now on good terms with Antony, and hoped to drive Pompey out of Sicily. Octavian said that he divorced her on account of her loose morals; but Antony maintained that it was because she had taken offence at her husband's intercourse with Livia : the real reason, however, was undoubtedly his love of Livia. Scribonia long survived her separation from Octavian, for in a. d. 2 she accompanied, of her own accord, her daughter Julia into exile, to the island of Pandateria. (Suet. Aug. 62, 69 ; Appian, B. C. v. 53 ; Dion Cass. xlviii. 34, Iv. 10 ; Veil. Pat. ii. 100 ; Tac. Ann. ii. 27.)
SCRIBONIA GENS, plebeian, is first mentioned at the time of the second Punic war, but the first member of it who obtained the consulship was C. Scribonius Curio in b. c. 76. The principal families in the gens are those of curio and libo ; and -besides these we meet with one or two other surnames in the imperial period, which are given below. On coins Libo is the only cognomen which is found.
SCRIBONIANUS, CAMERI'NUS. [CA-
[camillus, No. 7.J
SCRIBONIANUS, LICI'NIUS CRASSUS, the son of M. Licinius Crassus and of Scribonia, the granddaughter of Sex. Pompey, and a brother of Piso Licinianus, who was adopted by the emperor Galba. [Piso, No. 31.] Scribonianus was offered the empire by Antonius Primus, but refused to accept it. (Tac. Hist. i. 47, iv. 39.)
SCRIBONIUS, a person who pretended to be a descendant of Mithridates, usurped the kingdom of Bosporus on the death of Asander, about b.c. 16. According to Lucian the troops of Asander deserted to Scribonius in the life-time of the former, who thereupon put an end to his life by voluntary starvation. But Scribonius had scarcely mounted the throne before the Bosporans discovered the deception that had been practised upon them, and accordingly put the usurper to death. The kingdom was thereupon given to Polemon [polemon I.] (Dion Cass. liv. 24 ; Lucian, Macrob. 17.)
SCRIBONIUS APHRODISIUS. [aphro-
SCaOFA, literally "a sow that has had pigs," was the name of a family of the Tremellia gens.
1. L. tremellius scrofa, quaestor of A. Licinius Nerva, who governed Macedonia as propraetor in b.c. 142. During the absence of Nerva, he defeated a Pseudo-Perseus or a Pseudo-Philippus, for there is some uncertainty about the
name, and a body of 16,000 men. When attacked by the enemy, he said that he would scatter them straightway like a sow does her pigs (" dixit ce-leriter se illos, ut scrofa porcos, disjecturum"); and from this saying he obtained the cognomen of Scrofa, which became hereditary in his family. His grandson told Varro that this was the origin of their family name ; but Maerobius relates another tale respecting its introduction. (Liv. Epit. 53 ; Eutrop. iv. 15 ; Varr. R. R. ii. 4 ; Macrob. Sat. i. 6.)
3. cn. tremellius scrofa, the grandson of No. 1, was a friend of M. Varro, and a writer on agriculture. He is probably the same as the Cn. Tremellius, who was one of the judices at the trial of Verres in b. c. 70, and had been appointed military tribune for the following year (Cic. Verr. Act. i. 10). Scrofa was one of the twenty commissioners for dividing the Campanian land under the agrarian law of Julius Caesar, b. c. 59, and he must afterwards have served under Julius Caesar in Gaul, as he is said to have commanded an army near the Rhine. He is introduced as one of the speakers in Varro's treatise De Re Rustica, where his knowledge of agriculture is praised in the highest terms. He there speaks of himself as praetorius, but in what year he was praetor is unknown (Varr. R. R. i. 2. § 10, i. 7. § 8, ii. 4; Plin. H. N. xvii. 21. s. 35. § 22). He is mentioned in Cicero's correspondence as one of the friends of Atticus. (Cic. ad Att. v. 4. § 2, vi. 1. § 13, vii. 1. §8.)
SCUTARIOTA, THEODO'RUS. [theo-
SCYLAX (2/cu'Aa£). 1. Of Caryandain Caria, was sent by Dareius Hystaspis on a voyage of discovery down the Indus. Setting out from the city of Caspatyrus and the Pactyican district, Scylax and his companions sailed down the river to the east and the rising of the sun, till they reached the sea ; from whence they sailed westward through the Indian Ocean to the Red Sea, performing the whole voyage in thirty months. (Herod, iv. 44.)
2. Of Halicarnassus, a friend of Panaetius, distinguished for his knowledge of the stars, and for his political influence in his own state. (Cic. de Div. ii. 42.)
Suidas (s. #.), in his usual blundering manner, makes these two persons into one, and ascribes to Scylax the following works: — HepiirXovv rcc> 6/cros twv 'HpaK\eovs tmjAwv—ra Kara rov 'Hpa-K\si^7]v rov MuAarnroh' jSatnAea— yrjs Trepiofiov— dvriypacpriv -rrpos rr)v Ho\v€iov tcrropiav.
We have still extant a brief description of certain countries in Europe, Asia, and Africa, which bears the name of Scylax of Caryanda, and is entitled, HepiVAous rrjs &a\d<T<Tr]s olKOvjJiGvris EypWTrrjs teal 'Aaias Kal At§u7js. This little work was supposed by Lucas Holstenius, Fabricius, Sainte-Croix, and others, to have been written by the Scylax mentioned by Herodotus. Other writers, on the contrary, such as G. I. Vossius, Is. Vossius, and Dodwell, regarded the author as the contemporary of Panaetius and Polybius ; but most modern scholars are disposed