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SOPHIANUS.

maintained friendly relations. [sandrocottus] Schlegel supposes Sophagasenus to signify in San­scrit '% the leader of a fortunate army," and he gives Subhagascnas as the Indian form of the name. (Indische Bibliothek* vol. i. p. 248.)

SOPHANES (2w<J>&/r)s), an Athenian, of the demus of Deceleia. In the war between Athens and Aegina, just before the Persian invasion of B. c, 490, he slew in single combat Eurybates the Argive, before whose prowess three Athenians had already fallen. At the battle of Plataea, in b. c. 479, Sophanes distinguished himself by his valour above all his countrymen. One account described him as wearing during the engagement an iron anchor, which he had fastened, by a chain to the belt of his cuirass, and fixed in the ground to steady himself against the charge of the enemy. According to another statement, he merety bore the device of an anchor on his shield, which he kept perpetually whirling round. In B. c. 465, Sophanes was joined with Leagrus in the command of the 10,000 Athenians who unsuccessfully at­ tempted to colonize Amphipolis, and was slain in battle by the natives. (Herod vi. 92, ix. 73—75 ; Time. i. 100, iv. 102 ; Paus. i. 29.) [E. E.J

SOPHIA, the widow of Justin II. [JusxiNus II. ; tiberius II.]

SOPHIANUS (Solo's). 1. michael. There is a Latin version by a Michael Sophianus of Aris­totle's treatise De Anima, which was printed with the In Libros de Anima Aristotelis Escpositio of St. Thomas Aquinas, Fol. Venice (apud Juntas) 1565. Of the age of the translator nothing appears to be known unless we could identify him with the sub­ject of one or other of the following articles, which cannot be done without supposing that there is some mistake as to his first name. If, as is likely, he is a different person, we may conjecture that he was one of the many Greek refugees who sought refuge in Italy on the capture of Constantinople by the Turks, or a Greek of Corfu, to which island we judge from the following article a branch of the Sophiani be­longed. We may perhaps identify him with the Sophianus, a Greek, who translated into Latin, and addressed to Lelio del Valle, a work De Re Militari et de Militaribus Instrumentis, which is extant in the MS. in the Medicean library at Florence, or with the author of a work In Topica Aristotelis, of Epistolae in Laudem ipsius, and of Epigrammata Sacra., all in the Ambrosian Library at Milan, (Montfaucon, Biblioth. Bibliothecar. vol. i. pp. 331, 502.)

2. nicolaus. Raphael Volaterranus (Commen-tar. Urban. Lib. xxi.) mentions among the emi­nent persons of a then recent period, Sophianus, a Greek, who had taught Greek at Rome, but had not much cultivated an acquaintance with Latin. This notice would rather lead us to identify him with the Michael Sophianus just mentioned. [No. 1.] But Vossius (De Natura Artium, lib. ii. seu De Philologia, c. xi. § 21 ; Lib. iii. seu De Matliesi seu De Scientiis Maihematicis, c. Ixviii. § 14) identifies him with Nicolaus Sophianus, a Greek of Corfu, who drew a map of ancient Greece, which was published, and had its value at the time, though partaking considerably of the imperfection of the geographical science of thai day. Mont­faucon (/. c. p. 187) mentions among the MSS. of the Library of Card. Ottoboni at Rome Nicolai Sophiani Grammatica, apparently a Greek grammar, and in the Library of St. Mark at Venice there is a

VOL. III.

SOPHOCLES. 860

treatise in Greek by Sophianus, rov ^ofyiarov De Syntaxi, cod. ccccxcii. A Greek treatise by Nico­laus Sophianus, De Praeparatione (s. Covfectione) et Usu Astrolabii, extant in MS. in various Libraries (Montfaucon, /. c. pp. 632, 741, 1289, Biblioth. Reg. Paris. Catal. Fol. 1740. Codd. mmcdxcix. and mmdcclxxxii. a.), must be ascribed to a later Sophianus who lived in the sixteenth century, as appears by its dedication to Pope Paul III. The similarity of the subject would lead us to ascribe the map of Greece to this later Sophianus, were it not for the assertion of Vossius.

3. theodorus. Josias Simler in his Epitome Bibliothecae Gesnerianae (p. 784, ed. Frisii. Fol, Zurich, 1583, comp. Vossius, De Scientiis Matlie-maticis, c. Iviii. § 19), speaks of the works of Theo­doras Sophianus, which he terms Astronomica et Musica. The subjects would lead to the suspicion that he had in view the works of the later Nico­laus Sophianus, and gave him in mistake the name of Theodoras. There was, however, a Theodoras Sophianus in the last period of the Byzantine Empire : he was nephew of the patriarch Genna-dius II. of Constantinople [gennadius, No, 2], as appears from the title of the funeral oration which his uncle the patriarch pronounced for him, A. d. 1457—'

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£v ttj lepq imovfj BaroTreSiou e| U7ro7wou 6 SeTos avrov Tevvdb'ios (j.ovcl- Ta<£t<p, (rzirrcj) /o?, s"i]£e. Oraiio fune- bris beati Theodori Sophiani, in Sacro Monasterio Batopedii sepulti, quam extempore pronuntiavit avunculus ejus Gennadius monachus ad sepul- crum. 28 Septembris, anno 6965. (a. d. 1457.) (Fabric. BibL Graec. vol. xi. 382). It is perhaps to this Theodoras Sophianus that we may refer the Sophiani Epistola ad Archicpiscopum Pldladel- phiensem in the King's Library at Paris. Cod. mccclx. (Catalog. Biblioth. Reg. vol. ii. Fol. Paris 1740). (Vossius, //. cc. ; Fabric. BibL Graec. vol. xi. pp. 295, 714.) [J. C. M.]

SOPHILUS (2c£</uAos), a comic poet of the middle comedy, was a native of Sicyon or of Thebes, and composed the following dramas (Suid. s. -y.) : KiflapwSos, «I>tAapxos, TvisSdpecas rj A^5a, A^A/a, yEyx€iP/L^lov (or XoiplStov, but the other reading is more probably correct), and irapaKara-O^Ktjy to which must be added, from Athenaeus, ^vvrpexovres, and 'AyfyoKA^y. Diogenes Laertius (ii. 120) refers to a play of Sophilus, entitled Td/j.01, in which Stilpo was attacked ; but the reading of the passage is very doubtful, and Mei-neke has shown reasons for supposing that the play referred to is the Ta/j.os of Diphilus or of Phile­mon. Meineke also remarks that 2w$<Aos must not be confounded with 1,6<pi\os or 2 J<£* AAos, which was a different name: the father of the poet Sophocles was named 'SotyiXos. There are very few fragments of Sophilus remaining. The time at which he flourished is supposed by Meineke to have been about 01. 108, b. c. 348. (Meineke, Frag. Com. Graec. vol. i. pp. 424 — 426, vol. iii. pp. 581—584 ; Ed. Min., p. 794, &c.) [P. S.]

SOTHOCLES (So</>oK\i?s). 1. The celebrated tragic poet.

The ancient authorities for the life of Sophocles are very scanty. Duris of Samos wrote a work Ilepl EvpnriSov KaL 'SotyoKXeovs (Ath. iv. p. 1 84, d.) ; Ister, Aristoxenus, Neanthes, Satyrus, and others are quoted as authorities for his life ; and it cannot be doubted that, amidst the vast mass of

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