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SOSTRATUS.

Antipater, a nephew of Cassander, was placed on the throne, but his incapacity became speedily ap­ parent, and the times being such as to require an efficient military leader, he was set aside after a reign of only 45 days, and Sosthenes assumed the command of the army, though without the title of king. His arms were at first crowned with suc­ cess : he defeated the division of the Gauls under Belgius, and for a time cleared Macedonia of the barbarians, but was in his turn defeated by Bren- nus, and compelled to shut up his troops within the walls of the fortresses. Brennus, however, now turned his arms against Greece. Macedonia became again free, and Sosthenes retained the ad­ ministration of affairs during the space of nearly two years. Such at least is the statement of Por­ phyry, but the chronology of these events is ex­ tremely obscure. Sosthenes is included by the chronologers among the kings of Macedonia ; but it is very doubtful whether he ever assumed the royal title, which he had at first expressly refused. (Justin. xxiv. 5, 6 ; Porphyr. ap. Euseb. Arm. vol. i. pp. 156, 157, 162.) [E. H. B.]

SOSTHENES (SwotoVijs), of Cnidus, wrote a work on Iberia, of which Plutarch quotes the thirteenth book. (Plut. de Fluv. cc. 16, 17 ; Vos-sius, de Hist. Graecis, p. 500, ed. Westermann.)

SOSTHENES (^coo-0eV^s), a gem-engraver, for the above form, first suggested by Visconti, Beems to be most probably the correct mode of reading the inscription on a celebrated gem, which others have read Sosicles or Sosocles. This is one of the many examples of the confusion of Greek names beginning in So. The Gem is an intaglio, representing a Gorgon's head, in that beautiful style which did not prevail until after the time of Praxi­ teles. (Stosch, pi. 65; Bracci, pi. 109 ; Mus.Borb. vol. iv. pi. '69; Eckhel, Pierres grav. 31 ; Lippert, Daktyliothek^ i. ii. 70—77 ; R. Rochette, Lettre a a[. Schorn, pp. 154, 155, 2d ed.) [P. S.]

SOSTRATUS (SrforpaTos), a youth beloved by Hercules, to whom funeral sacrifices were offered in Achaia, and whose tomb was shown in the neighbourhood of the town of Dyme. (Paus. vii. 17. §4.) [L. S.]

SOSTRATUS (^arparos). 1. An Aegine-tan, son of Laodamas, is alluded to by Herodotus as having made the greatest profits ever realized by a single commercial voyage, but unfortunately the period and other circumstances of this successful enterprise are wholly unknown to us. (Herod, iv. 152.)

2. A Syracusan. [sosistratus, No. 2.]

3. Son of Amyntas, a noble Macedonian youth, in the service of Alexander the Great; was one of those implicated in the conspiracy of the pages against that monarch, for which he was put to death together with his friend and associate Her-molaus. [hermolaus.]

4. A citizen of Chalcedon, who became a courtier of the Gaulish king Cavarus, and is accused of having corrupted the naturally good disposition of that chieftain by his flatteries. (Polyb. ap. Athen. vi. p. 252, c.)

5. A flute-player and parasite, who enjoyed a

high place in the favour of Antiochus II. king of

Syria. His sons were admitted by that monarch

among his body-guards. (Athen. i. p. 19, a. vi. p.

244, f.)

6. Father of Deinarchus the Athenian orator, called, by some writers Socrates. [E. H. B.j

SOSTRATUS.

SOSTRATUS, literary. 1. A grammarian who lived in the time of Augustus. He was a native of Nysa, and a son of Aristodemus, who was an old man when Strabo was young (Strabo, xiv. p. 560).

2. A native of Phanagoreia (Steph. Byz. s. v.

We have no means of deciding whether it is to either of these, or to some different author, that the following works are to be ascribed: — 1. A work on Etruscan history (TuppyviKd, Plut. Parall. Min. c. 28 ; Stob. Floril. Ixiv. 35). 2. A work on animals (Athen. vii. pp. 303, b., 312, e. ; Aelian. Hist. An. v. 27, vi. 51). 3. A work on legendary history (Mufli/o? dywyn, Stob. I. c. c. 19). 4. A treatise on hunting (fcuj/TjyTjTt/ca, Stob. I. c. Ixiv. 33). 5. A work on Thrace (®pa- KtKa, Stob. I. c. vii. 66). 6. A treatise on rivers (Plut. de Fluv. c. 2 ; Vossius, de Hist. Graec. p. 227, ed. Westermann.) [C. P. M.]

SOSTRATUS (Swo-Tparos), the name of three members of the family of the Asclepiadae. 1. The third in descent from Aesculapius, the son of Hip-polochus I., and the father of Dardanus, who may be supposed to have lived in the eleventh century b.c. (Jo. Tzetzes, Chil. vii. Hist. 155, in Fabric. Bibl. Gr. vol. xii. p. 680, ed. vet.)

2. The eighth in descent from Aesculapius, the son of Theodoras I., and the father of king Cri-samis II., who lived perhaps in the eighth and seventh centuries b. c. (Id. ibid.)

3. The twelfth in descent from Aesculapius, the son of Theodoras II., and the father of Nebrus, who lived in the seventh century b. c. (Id. ibid. ; Poeti Epist. ad Artax. ap. Hippocr. Opera, vol. iii. p. 770.)

4. A surgeon of Alexandria, mentioned in terms of praise by Celsus (De Med. vii. praef. p. 137), who may be conjectured (from the names of his apparent contemporaries) to have lived in the third century b.c. (See also Gels. vii. 4, 14, pp. 139, 151.) Sprengel says he was a celebrated lithoto- mist, but of this there is no evidence. He appears to have given some attention to the subject of bandages (Galen, De Fasc. c. 102, 103, vol. xviii. pt. i. p. 823 ; Nicetas, cc. 469, 482, 484), and is probably the same person who wrote some zoolo­ gical works, which are quoted by several ancient authors, but are not now extant. (Aelian, De Nat. Anim. v. 27, vi. 51 ; Schol. Nicand. Ther. vv. 565, 747, 760, 764 ; Schol. Theocr. Id. i. 115* ; Athen. Deipn. vii. 66, 90, pp. 303, 312.) See also Galen, De Antid. ii. 14. vol. xiv. p. 184 ; and Gariopontus, De Febr. c. 7. (SprengePs Gesch. der Arzneik. ed. 1846.) [W. A. G.]

SOSTRATUS (26(fTpaTos\ artists. There are at least four, if not five, Grecian artists men­tioned, of this name, who have been frequently confounded with one another, but whom Thiersch has distinguished with much skill and, for the most part, correctly. (Epochen d. bild. Kunst., pp. 278, 282, foil.)

1. A statuary in bronze, the sister's son of Pythagoras of Rhegium, and his disciple, flourished about 01. 89, b. c. 424. (Plin. N. H. xxxiv. 8. s. 19. § 5.) None of his works are mentioned.

In this passage (as Dr. Rosenbaum, the editor of the new edition of SprengePs History, remarks)

for Swvro-Tos we should read

*

2. Of Chios, the instructor of Pantias, and

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