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SYNCELLUS.

is also very imperfect ; but in those printed at Basle, 8vo. 1549, Paris, 4to. 1580, and by Vignon and his heirs, 1587,1598, and 1601, the collection was gradually enlarged from MSS., until it attained to its present magnitude. No really good edition of these letters has yet appeared, but the most useful for general purposes are those of Juretus, 4to. Paris, 1604, and of Scioppius, 4to. Mogunt. 1608.

The fragments of the eight speeches were first published by Angelo Mai, 8vo. Mediolan. 1815, in a volume which was reprinted, page for page, at Frankfort, 8vo. 1816, and they will be found ap­pended to Niebuhr's edition of Fronto, 8vo. 1816. The extended fragments, comprising the additions to the eight speeches, and the remains of the ninth obtained from the Vatican MS., are contained in the " Scriptorum Veterum Nova Collectio e Vati-canis Codicibus edita ab Angelo Maio," 4to. Rom., 1825, vol. i. ; see also Meyer, Orator. Roman. Fragmenta, pp. 627—636, 2d ed.

4. Q. fabian us memmius symmachus, son of the preceding, by his wife Rusticiana, daughter of Orfitus. Like his father he held the offices of quaestor, praetor, and proconsul of Africa ; the latter in A. d. 415 (Cod. Theod. 11. tit. 30. s. 65). It is uncertain whether he ever attained to the consulship, but Mai seems to have proved that he was city praefect in A. d. 418.

5. Q. aurelitjs symmachus, who held the consulship along with Aetius, in a. d. 446, was in all probability the son of the preceding, and there­fore the grandson of the orator. He was the father of

6. Q. aurelius mjsmmius symmachus, who was a Christian and the father:in-law of Boethius.

(For full information regarding the life and writ­ ings of Symmachus, of his ancestors and of his descendants, see the " Commentarii Praevii de Symmacho" by Mai, in the first volume of the " Scriptorum Veterum Nova Collectio" noticed above. In this dissertation references will be found to all those passages in the ancient writers which bear upon the subject.) [W. R.]

SYMMACHUS, a physician at Rome in the first century after Christ, mentioned by Martial (v. 9, vi. 70, vii. 18). [W. A. G.]

SYMPO'SIUS, CAE1JUS FIRMIA'NUS.

[FlRMIANUS.]

SYNCELLUS, an ecclesiastical title borne by several Byzantine writers. The Syncellus was the chosen and confidential companion, com­monly the destined successor, of a patriarch. Among the personages who bore this title were Demetrius Syncellus, metropolitan of Cyzicus [de­metrius, literary, No. 17] ; Elias Syncellus [£li-as, No. 9] ; Georgius Syncellus the Chronologist, quoted frequently by his title only, " Syncellus." [georgius, literary and ecclesiastical, No. 46] ; Michael Syncellus of Jerusalem, of whom we subjoin an account, Michael Syncellus of Constantinople, otherwise Michael Monachus [michael, Byzan­tine writers, No. 9], and Stephanus Syncellus, Metropolitan of Nicomedia, whose treatise, De trip/id Animae Divisione was (perhaps is) extant In MS. in the original Greek text in the King's Library at Paris. Codd. mclxii. No. 2, and mdiv. No. 13. (Fabric. Biblioth. Graec. vol. xi. p. 715 ; Catalog. Codd. MStorum Biblioth. Reaiae, vol. ii. pp. 225, 343. Fol. Paris. 1740.) [J. C. M.]

SYNCELLUS or SYNGELUS(MICHAEL),

VOL. III.

SYNCELLUS.

a Greek writer of the lower empire, several of whosa works have been published. From his life of Theo­dore Studita, and from a letter of Theodore Studita to him (Theodor. Studit. Bpistol. lib. ii. Ep. 213, apud Sirmond. Opera Varia, vol. v. p. 733), we learn that he was a contemporary, apparently a disciple in the monastic life of that busy ecclesiastic (who died A. d. 826), that he was Syncellus of the Greek patri­arch of Jerusalem, M*%a?)A (rvyK€\\^> 'AyioTrohirr}, and that he supported the worship of images in the great controversy on that subject in the ninth cen­tury. From the title to his Greek version of a letter of Theodore Abucara (theodorus, literary and ecclesiastical, No. 3) we gather that he was Syncellus to Thomas who held the patriarchate of Jerusalem for about twenty years, from a. d. 801, or, according to other accounts, from 807. Mi­chael, however, must have survived both Theodore Studita and the patriarch Thomas, for he suffered a long imprisonment for his defence of image wor­ship in the reign of the iconoclastic emperor Theo-philus, which extended from a. d. 829 to 842. (Theophanes Continuat. De Theophilo, c. 15. p. 66, edit. Paris, p. 106, ed. Bonn. ; Cedrenus, Compend. p. 522, ed. Paris, vol. 'ii. p. 117, ed. Bonn.) Ba-ronius places his imprisonment in a. d. 835. These few facts constitute all that is known of the life of Michael.

His works are, 1. ^EyKwaiov els tov ayiov Ato-vvcriov. Encomium Dionysii Areopagitae. A pass­age from this is quoted by Suidas (s. -y.). This was first printed in the Latin version of Godefridus Til-mannus, a Carthusian monk of Paris, 8vo. Paris, 1546, and was speedily followed by the Greek text, edited by Tilmannus. 4to. Paris, 1547. The Greek text, and a new Latin version by Basi-lius Millanus, were given by Corderius in his edi­tion of the Opera S. Dionysii Areopagitae, vol. ii. pp. 207, &c. fol. Antwerp, 1634. In all these editions the author's title is given ^vyyeXos, Syngelus, as it is also by Suidas. 2. 3EyK<a/j,iov els tovs dyiovs tov ®eou dpxayyfaovs Kal dyyehcvs Ka\ irdffas rets sirovpaviovs Swa/xeis. Encomium, sanctorum Dei archangelorum et angelorum omnium-que coelestium potestatum. This is given by Com-befis, with a Latin version, in the second volume of his Auctarium Novum. Fol. Paris, 1648 ; and the Latin version of Combefis is given in the Maxima Bibliotheca Patrum, vol. xiv. Fol. Lyon, 1677. 3. A Greek version of the letter of Theodore Abu­cara, described elsewhere. [theodorus, literary and ecclesiastical, No. 3.] 4. Mixcu}A cnry/ce'Aoy 'lepoffoXvfJLWV At£eAAos Trepl tov op6oo'6l;ov iricrTe^s. Michatlis Synceli Hierosolymorum Libellus de Or-thodoxa Fide, s. Professio Fidei. This is given by Montfaucon, with a Latin .version, in his Biblio-tlteca Coislin. p. 90, &c. 5. Mi%c»)A 7rpeff§VTepov Kal ffvyK€\\ov tov diroffToXiKov Sp6vov twv 'lepo-<7oAu/ucoj> [j.edoo'os Trepl TTJs tov \6yov (r%€5iacr0e7<ra ev 'Eb~ecro~y ttjs MetfOTroTaj Aa^dpov S^ocKoVou QiXocrofyov ical XoyoQeTov* cJtaelis Presbyteri et Syncelli Apostolicae Sedis Hie-rosolymitanae Methodus de Construction Orationis^ extempore composita Edessae Mesopotamiae royatu Lazari Diaconi, Philosophi, et Logotlietae. We give the title from a MS. in the Medicean library at Florence (Bandini, Catalog. Codd. MStorum Graec. Biblioth. Medic. Laurent. vol. ii. col. 206), which we believe gives the author correctly ; but the tract has been repeatedly printed under the name of Georgius Lecapenus [georgius, literary

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