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T ATI AN US.

are preserved': indeed we do not know' even the names of more than a few of his " infinita volumina." They are as follows. 1. Tlepl rov Kara rbv ^uorripa, KarapTKTfjLov, De Perfectione secundum Servatorem. This is quoted by Clement of Alexandria (Strom. lib. iii. c. 12). It was written after he had be­come heretical, for the passage cited by Clement is in condemnation of matrimony. 2. Hpo^Kt]iJ.ar(av j8f£Aioi>, Quaestionum Liber, mentioned by Rhodon (apud Euseb. H. E. v. 13), but it is not clear that Tatian ever completed the work, or did more than form the plan : it was to be on the difficulties of the Scriptures. 3. TIpbs tous a7ro^j/a/*eVoi»s to. ircpi ©6ov, Adversus eos qui fidem detrahunt rebus d,i-vinis. This work is mentioned by Tatian himself in his Oratio ad Graecos, c. 62, but in terms which render it doubtful whether he had then written the work or only projected it. 4. Ilept &<av, De Animalibus, mentioned by Tatian as already writ­ten by him (ib. c. 24). 5. He wrote also, as he tells us, a work in which he had treated of daemons, and of the state of the soul after death (ib. c. 24), but he does not mention the title of the work. 6. Ata reffffapaiiv, Diatessaron. s. Harmonia Evangdiorum. Eusebius mentions the work (H. E. iv. 29), but in such a way as to show that he had not seen it : Jerome does not even mention it (De Vir. Illustr. c. 1.7), but Theodoret says it was used not only by Tatian's more immediate followers, but by some other heretics, and even by the orthodox; for Theo­doret himself collected above two hundred copies from what he calls " our churches" (ra?s irap* t^jui €KK\t}aiais), apparently the churches of his own diocese, in exchange for which he gave or procured for them copies of the four gospels. According to him, not only the genealogies, but all the parts which recognized the descent of Jesus from David were omitted, so that the compilation was evidently made after Tatian had become heretical, and on a principle consistent with his heretical sentiments. The work has perished. There is extant an Har­monia Evangelica in Latin, translated by Victor, bishop of Capua, a writer of the middle of the sixth century, from a Greek manuscript, which did not contain any author's name. Victor sought to dis­cover the author, and after weighing and rejecting the claims of Ammonius of Alexandria to be so considered, ascribed it to Tatian. There is also extant an ancient Tudesque or German version (versio Theotisca) of this Harmonia. The Latin version was published under the name of Tatian in the Orthodoxographa of Heroldus, fol. Basel, 1555, and of Grynaeus, fol. Basel, 1569, and in successive editions of the Bibliotheca Patrum of De la Bigne, fol. Paris, 1575, 1589, 1610, 1654, and Cologne, 1618. But as this Harmonia, which is in the words of the sacred writers, contains the genea­logies, critics discovered that it had been incor­rectly ascribed to Tatian ; and in the Lyon edi­tion of the Bibliotheca Patrum, fol. 1677, arid in the Bibliotheca Patrum of Galland, fol. Venice, ,1765, &c., it appears under the name of Ammonius^ to whom most critics, but not all, now ascribe it. .[ammonius saccas.] The ancient German ver­sion was published, but in an incomplete form, by Palthenius, 4to. Griefswald, 1706, and more fully, but still far from completely, in the Thesaurus An-tiquitatum Teutonicarum of Schilter, fol. Ulm, 1728, vol. ii. p. 57, &c. Some supplementary portions are given by Hess, in the Biblioth. der HeiL Ges-chichte, part ii. p. 543—570. Another Latin Har-

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TAUREUS.

monia, so called, but which is in fact a condensed narrative of the History of Jesus Christ, arranged chronologically under the three years to which, as the writer supposed, the public ministry of the Saviour extended, was published in the Micropresbyticon, fol. Basel, 1550, in the two editions of the Ortho­doxographa, and in the successive editions of the Bibliotheca Patrum of De la Bigne. In nearly all these it is given under the name of Ammonius, but it appears in the edition of the Bibliotheca, Lyon, 1677, under that of Tatian, to whom some critics have been disposed to ascribe it. Even Cave at one time held that opinion, though he afterwards renounced it; and the cautious and judicious Lard-ner was strongly inclined to it. Yet the work is by no means such as the description of Theodoret implies: and the general opinion of critics is un­favourable to the authorship of Tatian, to whom we can only wonder that any should have ascribed it. Le Nourry, the editor of the Lyon Bibliotheca, in his Dissertatio in Tatianum, justly rejects the opi­nion which ascribes it to him.

Rufinus, in his Historia Ecclesiastica (vi. 11), ascribes to Tatian a Chronicon. This statement is usually considered as erroneous, and is supposed to rest on the misinterpretation of a passage in Euse­ bius (H. E. vi. 13) ; but it is to be observed that the author of the Chronicon Paschale (I. c.) and Joannes Malalas, call Tatian " 9, chronographer," and refer to his notice of the quarrel of Peter and Paul at Antioch. Jerome (Epist. ad Magnum, ep. 84, edit, vett.; 83, ed. Benedictin.; 70, ed Vallarsi) says that Tatian had pointed out that various here­ sies had arisen from the opinions of the heathen philosophers ; but he does not say to what work he refers. Eusebius says that some had charged Ta­ tian with corrupting certain passages in the writings of the apostle Paul, under the plea of correcting their inaccuracy of construction ; but we know not to what work of Tatian he refers ; nor would the charge imply more than that he had paraphrased those passages. The ancient authorities for this article have been referred to in the course of it. We subjoin those of modern date:—Cave, Hist. Litt. ad ann. 172, vol. i. p. 75, and ad ann. 220 (s. v. Ammonius), p. 109, &c., ed. Oxford, 1740— ]743 ; Fabric. BibL Graec. vol. vii. p. 87, &c. ; Maran, Praefatio ad Justini Martyris Opera, fol. Paris, 1742, pars iii. c. 10—12 ; Le Nourry and Anonym. Dissertationes, apud Worth, Tatiani Opera ; Galland, BibL Patrum, Prolegom. in voll. i. ii. ; Ittigius, De Haeresiarchis, sect. ii. c. 12 ; Til- lemont, Memoires, vol. ii. p. 410, &c. ; Mosheim, De Rebus Christianor. ante Constantin. Magnum, saec. ii. § xxxvii. Ixi. ; Oudin, De Scriptorib. Ec- clesiast. vol. i. col. 209, &c. ; Ceillier, Auteurs Sacris, vol. ii. ; Ittigius, De Bibliotheds Patrum, passim ; Lardner, Credibility, &c. part ii. book i. ch. xiii. xxxvi. ; Neander, Church History, vol. ii. p. 109, &c. (Rose's translation), [J. C. M.]

T. TA'TIUS, king of the Sabines. [romulus.]

TAUREA, JUBE'LLIUS, a Campanian of high rank and distinguished bravery in the second Punic war. He fought with Claudius Asellus in single combat in b. c. 215, and put an end to his own life on the capture of Capua by the Romans in b. c. 211. (Liv. xxiii. 8, 46, 47, xxvi. 15 ; comp. Cic. in Pis. ] 1.)

TAUREUS (Tatptos), a surname of Poseidon, given to him either because bulls were sacrificed to him, or because he was the divinity that gave green

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