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TAURION.

pasture to bulls on the sea-coast. (Hes. Scut. Here. 104 ; Horn, Od. iii. 6 ; Schol. ad Find. Nem. vi. 69.) [L. S.]

TAURICA (DBA) (?) Tai;p«c4), "theTaurian goddess," commonly called Artemis. Her image was believed to have been carried from Tauris by Orestes and Iphigenia, and to have been conveyed to Brauron, Sparta, or Aricia. The worship of this Taurian goddess, who was identified with Artemis and Iphigenia, was carried on with or­giastic rites and human sacrifices, and seems to have been very ancient in Greece. (Paus. iii. 16. § 6 ; Herod, iv. 103 ; comp. artemis.) [L. S.J

TAURINUS, T. CAE'SIUS, a Roman poet, who probably lived in the fourth century of our era, is only known as the author of an extant poem in twenty-three hexameter lines, entitled Votum Fortunae. It is usually entitled Votum Fortunae Praenestinae; but although it is extant'at present at Praeneste in the Palazzo Baronale, it refers to the temple of Fortuna in the Roman forum ; and accordingly Meyer has correctly dropt the addition of Praenestinae in the title of the poem. It is printed in the Latin Anthology (i. Ep. 80, ed. Burmann and Ep. 622, ed. Meyer), and by Wernsdorf in his Pottae Latini Minores (yol. iv. p. 309, &c.).

TAURION (Tcwpia>*>), a Macedonian officer in the service of Antigonus Doson, king of Mace­donia, who had risen to so high a place in the con­fidence of that monarch that the latter appointed him, by his last will, to command the royal troops in the Peloponnese during the minority of Philip V. (Polyb. iv. 6, 87.) In this position we find him in b. c. 221, assisting the Achaean praetor Timoxe-nus in reducing the strong post of Clarium, which had been occupied by the Aetolians ; and again, in B. c. 220, co-operating with Aratus against the in­roads of the Aetolians, which terminated in the battle of Caphyae and the destruction of Cynaetha. (Id. iv. 6, 10, 19.) In b. c. 218, when Philip in person led an army into the Peloponnese, we once more find Taurion mentioned as rendering efficient assistance to his youthful sovereign in the invasion of Elis. So great indeed was the reputation and influence which he now enjoyed, that Apelles deemed it absolutely necessary, for the furtherance of his ambitious designs, to remove Taurion from the important post which he held, an object which he sought to effect under the pretext of attaching him more closely to the king's person. His designs were, however, detected, and Philip gave a fresh proof of his confidence in Taurion by placing under his command the troops whose fidelity had been corrupted by Leontius. (Id. iv. 80, 87, v. 27.) From this time we find him retaining the chief direction of the war in the Peloponnese, as well as rendering other important services: thus, in b. c. 217, we find him sent, together with Aratus, to treat with the Aetolians at NaHpactus. He had, however, already displayed some jealousy of the Achaean leader, and appears to have done his best to inflame the growing enmity of Philip towards Aratus, until he at length len't his aid to the young king to remove his former friend and counsellor by means of secret poison, b. c. 214. (Id. v. .02, 95, 103, viii. 14; Plut. A rat. 52.) The part taken by Taurion in this transaction, is sufficient evidence of his character; and it is to him, in conjunction with Demetrius the Pharian, that Polybius imputes the blame of perverting and cor-

TAURUS.

rupting the naturally good disposition of Philip. (Polyb. ix. 23.) [E. H. B.]

TAURIONE, TAURO, TAURO'POLOS, or TAURO'POS (Tavpidvr), Taupe.?, TavpoTr6\os9 TaupwTT^y), originally a designation of the Taurian goddess, but also used as a surname of Artemis or even Athena, both of whom were identified with the Taurian goddess. (Hesych. s. v. raupoTroXai.") The name has been explained in different ways, some supposing that it means the goddess wor­ shipped in Tauris, going around (i. e. protecting) the country of Tauris, or the goddess to whom bulls are sacrificed ; while others explain it to mean the goddess riding on bulls, drawn by bulls, or killing bulls. Both explanations seem to have one thing in common, namely, that the bull was pro­ bably the ancient symbol of the bloody and savage worship of the Taurian divinity. (Schol. ad Soph. Ajac. 172 ; Eurip. Ipliig. Taur. 1457; Muller, Orckom. p. 305, &c. 2d ed.) [L. S.J

TAURISCUS, a Greek grammarian, and a disciple of Crates. (Sextus Empir. adv. Mathem. i. 248, p. 268, ed. Fabric.) The Greek actor of this name, spoken of by Theophrastus, must have been a different person. (Cic. de Orat. iii. 59.)

TAURISCUS, artists/ 1. A sculptor of Tralles, who, with his brother Apollonius, made the cele­brated Toro Farnese. [apollonius.] Pliny also mentions his Hermerotes^ in the collection of Asinius Pollio. (H. N. xxxvi. 5. s. 4. § 10).

2. Of Cyzicus, a distinguished silver-chaser (caelator) whom Pliny distinguishes from the above artist (I. c.) He elsewhere mentions him, in his list of silver-chasers, as flourishing soon after Stratonicus. (xxxiii. 12. s. 55.)

3. A painter, mentioned by Pliny among the artists who were primis proximi. His works were a Discobolus, Clytaemnestra^ Paniscus, Polynices regnum repetens and Capanens. The Polynices and Capaneus, it may be presumed, formed parts of one composition, representing the battle of the Seven Chiefs against Thebes. (Plin. H. N. xxxv. 11. s. 40. § 40.) [P. S.]

TAUROCEPHALUS (TavpoKe<t>a\os, also Tavp6Kpavos, Taupo/xercoTros, &c.), a surname of Dionysus in the Orphic mysteries. (Orph. Hymn. 51. 2 ; comp. taurus.) It also occurs as a sur­ name of rivers and the ocean, who were symbolically represented as bulls, to indicate their fertilising effect upon countries. (Eurip. Ipliig. Aul. 275, Orest. 1378 ; Aelian, V. H. ii. 33 ; Horat. Carm. iv. 14, 25.) [L. S.]

TAUROPOLIS (Tavp6iro\is). 1. A daughter of the Megarian Cleson, who was believed, together with her sister Cleso, to have found and buried the body of Ino, which had been washed on the coast of Megara. (Paus. i. 42, in fin.) *

2. A son of Dionysus and Ariadne. (Schol. ad Apollon. Fthod. iii. 997.) [L. S.J

TAURUS (TaDpos), a bull, occurs: 1. as a surname of Dionysus. (Eurip. Bacch. 918 ; Athen. xi. p. 476 ; Plut. Quaest. Graec. 36 ; Lycoph. Cass. 209.)

2. According to some, another name for Talos. (Apollod. i. 9. § 26.)

3. A son of Neleus and Chloris. (Apollod. i. 9. § 9.) [L. S.]

TAURUS, ANTO'NIUS, a tribune of the praetorian cohorts, a. d. 69. (Tac. Hist. i. 20.)

TAURUS BERYTIUS, a Platonic philo­sopher, who defended the Platonic philosophy

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