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and married Penelope, by whom he became the father of Italus. (Hes. Theog. 1014 ; Hygin. Fab. 127 ; Tzetz. ad Lycoph. 805 ; Eustath. ad Horn. pp. 1660, 1676 ; Serv. ad Aen. ii. 44 ; Lucian, DeSalt. 46 ; Aristot. Poet 14.) In Italy Tele- gonus was believed to have been the founder of the towns of Tusculum and Praeneste. (Ov. Fast. iii. 92, iv. 71 ; Horat. /. c.; Dionys. Hal. iv. 45 ; Plut. Parall.'Min. 4L) In some traditions Tele- gonus (also called Teledamus) is described as a son of Odysseus by Calypso. (Eustath. ad Horn. p. 1796.) [L. S.]
TELEMACHUS (T^Ae^axoy), the son of Odysseus and Penelope (Horn. Od. i. 216). He was still an infant at the time when his father went to Troy, and in his absence of nearly twenty years he grew up to manhood. After the gods in council had determined that Odysseus should return home from the island of Ogygia, Athena, assuming the appearance of Mentes, king of the Taphians, went to Ithaca, and advised Telemachus to eject the troublesome suitors of his mother from his house, and to go to Pylos and Sparta, to gather information concerning his father. Telemachus followed the advice, but the suitors refused to quit his house; and Athena, in the form of Mentes, accompanied Telemachus to Pylos. There they were hospitably received b}' Nestor, who also sent his own son to conduct Telemachus to Sparta. Menelaus again kindly received him, and communicated to him the prophecy of Proteus concerning Odysseus. (Horn. Od. i.—iv.) From Sparta Telemachus returned home; and on his arrival there, he found his father, with the swineherd Eumaeus. But as Athena had metamorphosed him into a beggar, Telemachus did not recognise his father until the latter disclosed to him who he was. Father and son now agreed to punish the suitors ; and when they were slain or dispersed, Telemachus accompanied his father to the aged Laertes. (Horn. Od. xv.—xxiv. ; comp. odysseus.) In the Post-Homeric traditions, we read that Palamedes, when endeavouring to persuade Odysseus to join the Greeks against Troy, and the latter feigned idiotcy, placed the infant Telemachus before the plough with which Odysseus was ploughing. (Hygin. Fab. 95 ; Serv. ad Aen. ii. 81 ; Tzetz. ad Lycoph. 384 ; Aelian, V. H. xiii. 12.) According to some accounts, Telemachus became the father of Perseptolis either by Polycaste, the daughter of Nestor, or by Nausicaa, the daughter of Alcinous. (Eustath. ad Horn. p. 1796 ; Diet. Cret. vi. 6.) Others relate that he was induced by Athena to marry Circe, and became by her the father of Latinus (Hygin. Fab. 127 ; comp. telegonus), or that he married Cassiphone, a daughter of Circe, but in a quarrel with his mother-in-law he slew her, for which in his turn he was killed by Cassiphone. (Tzetz. ad Lycoph. 808.) He is also said to have had a daughter called Roma, who married Aeneas. (Serv. ad Aen. i. 273.) One account states that Odysseus, in consequence of a prophecy that his son was dangerous to him, sent him away from Ithaca. Servius (ad Aen. x. 167) makes Telemachus the founder of the town of Clusium in Etruria. [L. S.]
TELEMACHUS, an Asiatic monk and martyr, who is justly renowned for the act of daring self-devotion, by which he caused the gladiatorial combats at Rome to be abolished, and obtained for himself the honours of canonization. In the year A, D. 404, in the midst of the spectacles of the
amphitheatre, Telemachus rushed into the arena, and tried to separate the gladiators. The spectators, in the first moment of exasperation, stoned him to death, but the emperor Honorius proclaimed him a martyr, and soon afterwards abolished the gladia torial combats, a measure which Constantine had in vain attempted, and which Honorius had long hopelessly desired to effect. (Theodoret. H. E. v. 26). Some doubt has been thrown upon the story, on account of the absence from the Theodosian Code of any edict of Honorius prohibiting such combats ; but there was already such an edict by Constantine in existence, and no evidence can be produced to show that there were any gladiatorial rights after this period, although we know that the combats of wild beasts continued till the fall of the Western Empire. (Schrockh, Christliclie Kir- chengescliichte, vol. vii. p. 254, or 238, 2d ed. ; Gibbon, c. 30, vol. v. p. 199, ed. Milman, with Milman's Note.) [P. S.]
TELEMNASTUS (T^A^ao-ros), a Cretan, whom Perseus sent to Antiochus "Epiphanes, in b. c. 168, to urge him by every motive of self- interest to side with him against Rome. (Polyb. xxix. 3.) We may perhaps identify this person with the Telemnastus, a Gortynian, who with 500 men effectually aided the Achaeans in their war with Nabis. (Pofyb. xxxiii. 15.) [E. E.]
TELEMUS (T^Aeyuos), a son of Eurymus, and a celebrated soothsayer. (Horn. Od. ix. 509 ; Ov. Met. xiii. 731 ; Theocrit. Idyll vi. 23.) [L. S.]
TELENICUS (TeAeWos), of Byzantium, is mentioned by Athenaeus as one of the miserable flute-players of the Athenian dithyramb. (Ath. xiv. p. 638, b.) He appears to have been ridiculed by Cratinus, in his Seriphians, and the worthlessness of his nomes gave rise to the proverbial expressions, TeAej/t/aercu and TeAeyiKetos f/x&> (Hesych. s. v. T€\€vtKiffai',Etym. Mag. s. v. p. 751. 5; Phot. Lex. s. v. p. 574. 6 ; Suid. s. v. TeAew/crjo'cu, which should be TeAew/ao-cu j Meineke, Frag. Com. Grace, vol. ii. p. 139.) P. S.]
TELEON (TeAeW). 1. An Athenian, a son of Ion, the husband of Zeuxippe, and father of the Argonaut Butes. (Apollod. i. 9. §16; Apollon. Rhod. i. 95.) From him the Teleonites in Attica derived their name. (Eurip. Ion, 1579.) . 2. The father of the Argonaut Eribotes. (Apol lon. Rhod. i. 71.) [L. S.]
TELEPHANES (T^Ae^a^s), artists. 1. Of Sicyon. [ardices].
2. A Phocian statuary, who flourished in Thessaly, where he worked for the Persian kings, and, according to Miiller, for the Aleuads ; but whatever probability there may be for the latter statement, it is not made by Pliny, who is our only authority for the artist. (Plin. H. N. xxxiv. 8. s. 19. § 9 ; Miiller, Arch'dol. d. Kunst, § 112, n. 1, § 247, n. .6.) Pliny tells us that, although little known beyond Thessaly, where his works lay concealed from the notice of the rest of Greece, he was men tioned with great praise by artists who had written upon art, and who placed him on an equality with Polycleitus, Myron, and Pythagoras. His works were, Larissa, Spintharus a victor in the pentathlon, and Apollo. As he worked for Darius and Xerxes, he must have flourished in the early part of the fifth century, b. c. [P. S.]