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great pleasure and profit from these studies, and although his style bears evident marks of this familiar intercourse, on no single occasion does he ever name Tertullian, or give a quotation from his works, a sure indication that although he found him an agreeable companion, he considered him as no safe guide for himself or others, and was by no means desirous to proclaim his intimacy with a personage of such doubtful reputation.

Tn addition to the list given above Tertullian was the author of several works, some of which had been lost even in the time of Jerome. The titles only of the following have been preserved, and some of them are doubtful. 1. De Vestibus Aaron. 2. Ad Amicum PhilosopTium. 3. De Censu Animae. 4. De Spe fidelium. 5. De Paradiso. 6. De Ecstasi. 7. De Animae Summissione. 8. De Superstitione Saeculi. 9. De Carne et Anima. 10. Adversus Apelliacos. (See De Carne Christi, c. 8). 11. De Incommodis Nuptiarum. The fol­lowing have sometimes been erroneously ascribed to Tertullian: 1. De Trinitate. 2. De Cibis Ju~ daicis, both of which belong to Novatianus. 3. De ITaeresibus, frequently appended to the tract De Praescriptione Hereticorum. • 4. De Definitionibus Fidei, together with several poems — Sodoma ; De Ligno Vitae ; De Judicio Domini; Carmen ad Sena-torem; Adversus Marcionem Libri V. &c.

The Apologia was printed before any other work by Tertullian, having been published at Venice by Bernardinus Benalius, fol. 1483.

The first edition of the collected works was printed at Basle, by Frobenius, under the editorial inspection of Beatus Rhenanus, fol. 1521, and contained, 1. De Patientia Liber. 2. De Carne Christi. 3. De Resurrectione Carnis. 4. De Prae-scripiione Hereticorum. 5. Adversus omnes Haereses.

6. Adversus Judaeos. 7. Adversus Marcionem Libri V. 8. Adversus Hermogenem. 9. Adversus Valentinianos. 10. Adversus Praxeam. 11. De Corona Militis. 12. Ad Mariyres. 13. De Poeni-tentia. 14. De Virginibus velandis. 15. De Habitu Midieris. 16. De Cultu Feminarum. 17- Adllxorem Libri II. 18. De Fuga in Persecutione. 19. Ad Scapulam. 20. De E^hortatione Castitatis. 21. De Mo?iogamia. 22. De Pattio. 23. Apologeticus adversus gentes. Of the above the Adversus omnes Jfaereses, s. De Plaeresibus is, as we have already remarked, spurious, and the two tracts De Habitu Muliebri arid De Cultu Feminarum, are frequently regarded as a division of the same piece, and both included under the latter title. The edition of Gagnaeus, fol. Paris. 1545, contained eleven addi­tional pieces. 1. De Trinitate. 2. De Animae Testimonio. 3. De Anima. 4. De Spectaculis. 5. De Baptismo. 6. Contra Gnosticos Scorpiacum.

7. De Idololatria. 8. De Pudicitia. 9. De Jejunio adversus PsycMcos. 10. De Cibis Judaicis Epistola. 11. De Oratione. Of these the De Trinitate, and De Cibis Judaicis, belong to Novatianus, but the collection was now complete with the exception of the two books Ad Nationes, which were first pub­lished by Jac. Gothofredus(4to. Genev. 1625) from the Codex Agobardi, the most ancient MS. of Tertullian, and the only one which contains this piece.

The best editions are those of Pamclius, fol. Antv. 1579, and, in an improved form, revised by Franciscus Junius, Franeck. 1597 ; of Rigaltius fol. Lutet. 1634, improved by Priorius, fol. Lutet. 1664, 1675, fol. Venet. 1744 ; and of Semler, con-


eluded by Schutz, 6 vols. 8vo. Hal. 1770. Of these the most desirable is the Venice edition of 1744, although it unfortunately abounds with typo­graphical errors.

There is an excellent edition of the De Pallio, by Salmasius, 8vo. Lutet. 1622, 8vo. Lug. Bat. 1656, and of the Apologeticus, by Havercamp, 8vo., Lug. Bat. 1710, reprinted in the Venice ed. of 1744.

(Lactant. v. 1; Euseb. H. E. ii. 2 ; Hieron. de Viris II. 53, Epist. ad Magn. Orat, Epist. ad Paulin.; Euseb. Chron. s. ann. xii. Severi; Praedes- tinat. adv. Hacres. ed. Sirmond; Augustin. de Haeres. 86 ; Vincent. Linn. Commonit. 24 ; Vita Tertullian. edit. Pamelian. praemiss.; Allix, Dissertatio de Tertullian. Vit. et Script. 8vo. Par. 1680 ; Si..hramm, Analysis Operum SS. Patrum, <j(c. vol. iii. pp. 1— 636 ; Noesselt, de Aetat. Script. Tertullian. Dissert. iii. Hal. 1757—59 ; Schdnemann, BibliotJieca Pa- trum Lat. vol. i. cap. 2; Oelrich, de Scriptorr. Eccles. Lot. sexpriorum Seculorum;,Antignosticus, $c. 8vo. Berl. 1825 ; Mlinter, Primordia Eccles. African. 4to. Hafn. 1829 ; Bishop of Bristol (now of Lincoln), " The Ecclesiastical History of the Second and Third Centuries, illustrated from the Writings of Tertullian," 2nd ed. Camb. 8vo. 1829.) [W.R.]

TERTULLINUS, VOLCA'TIUS, tribune of the plebs at the end of a. d. 69. (Tac. Hist. iv. 9.)

'tertullus cornu'tus. [cornutus.]

TERTULLUS, Q. FLAVIUS, consul suffectua in a. d. 162. (Fasti.)

TERTULLUS, SCA'PULA, consul in a. d. 195, Avith Tineius Clemens. (Dig. 27. tit. 9. s. 1 j Cod. 9. tit. 1. s. 1).

TERTULLUS, SEX. SULPI'CIUS, consul A. d. 158, with C. Tineius Sacerdos. (Fasti.)

TESTA, C. TREBA'TIUS, a contemporary of Cicero and of the scholars of Servius Sulpicius, was a pupil of Q. Cornelius Maximus (Cic. ad Fam. vii. 8 and 17; and Dig. 33. tit. 7. s. 16. § 1.) Cicero re­commended Testa to C. Julius Caesar (ad Fam. vii. 5), during his proconsulship of Gallia, and in his letter to Caesar he spoke of him as an honest man, and as possessing a great knowledge of the Jus Civile. (As to the expression " familiam ducit" in Cicero's Letter to Caesar, see the note of Zimmern, p. 298, n. 7 : " quod familiam ducit," means " quod praeeipuum est)." Trebatius had little taste for military matters, but still he kept with Caesar, and he wrote to Cicero and received from Cicero various letters while he was in Gaul (Cic. Ep. ad Fam. lib. vii.). It appears that Caesar offered him the pay of a tribune without requiring the discharge of the duties, and that Trebatius declined it. He did not accompany Caesar in his second British expedition, but he probably got a little inured to military service at last. Trebatius followed Caesar's party after the civil war broke out; and he wrote to Cicero to tell him that Caesar thought Cicero ought to join Caesar's side, or, if he would not do that, he ought to go to Greece and stay out of the way (Plutarch, Cicero, c. 37). Suetonius (Caesar, c. 78) tells an anecdote, that when all the senate approached Caesar, who was sitting in front of the temple of Venus Genetrix, with the decrees which conferred extraordinary honours on him, Trebatius advised Caesar to rise up to receive the senate, for which advice Caesar by his countenance showed his displeasure. Cicero dedicated to Trebatius his

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