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by Michael Rhangabe. Two years afterwards, when the emperor Leo the Armenian issued an edict against the worship of images, Theodoras, backed by a considerable number of monks, set the edict at defiance, openly celebrated processions of images, and incited the people to sedition. He was at first placed in gentle confinement; but as he did not cease to send out encyclical letters against the emperor, he was subsequently removed to various prisons, and at length taken to Smyrna, and there closely confined. In 821 he was set at liberty by the emperor Michael Balbus, and resumed his post at the head of his monastery. His imprisonments had not taught him moderation. His furious zeal for image worship soon broke out again. In 824, indignant that the emperor would not take strong measures against the Iconoclasts, he favoured the machinations of Thomas against the emperor, and when the attempts of Thomas were suppressed, found it necessary to retire from Constantinople. After wandering about in several places, he at length settled in the island Chalcite, where he died in 826, on the 11th of November. Those who wish for detailed information respecting the piety and miracles of Theodoras, may consult Baronius (Annales, vol. ix. a. 7-95—826), who derived his materials from a life of Theodoras by Joannes, or some other Greek writer. In one MS. this life is attributed to a monk of the name of Michaelis, and under his name it is published in the fifth volume of the works of Sirmondus (Paris, 1696), where also will be found the following literary remains of Theodoras.
1. An oration on behalf of images^ delivered before the emperor Leo. 2. Aiafl^fo?, a confession of faith, written by Theodoras shortly before his death, and accompanied by various precepts respecting the monastic life, intended for the benefit and guidance of his successor in the office of abbot. 3, Bi'gAos 5o7iuart/c^, <h> rj (rreppol \6yoi y' Kal avTipp-rjriKoi. Three discourses against the Icono-machi. 4. "EXey^os Kal avarpo-jr^ rwv avegtav 7roi7?«c£Twi>, a refutation of certain iambic acrostichs composed by Joannes, Ignatius, Sergius, and Ste-phanus against the worship of images. 5. Tlpo-d nva Trpbs eiKoi/ojjLdxovs. 6. Kara e\Kovo-Ke<pd\aia eirrd. 7. 'EiriffToX^ Trpbs TI\d-Trepl ttjs TrpoffKvvfjffews twv ffeirTWV elK6v<av. 8. Two books of epistles, comprising altogether 276. Almost twice as many however are extant. In one MS. of the Coislinian library there are 548. These letters form a collection of considerable historical value not only for the life of Theodoras, but with reference to the disputes which agitated the Church in his time. Fabricius (Bibl. Grace, vol. x. p. 439, &c.) has given a list of those to whom these letters are addressed, amounting to 284. 9. 'Id/j.€oi els <5ia<popovs vtroQtffsis, epigrammatic poems in iambic metre on various subjects. The following are not published in the works of Sirmondus : 10. Aoyf^ariK^ irepl Ti,uys Kal irpoaKvvi]fffi(us r<£v ayiuv elK.6v<av> published in the works of Damascenus (Basil. 1575, fol). There is a Latin version in the BiUiothcca Patrum (Paris, 1589, 1644 and 1654, vol. iii.). 11. 'Eirird(pios els HXdrowa rbv lauroO Trvev^arLKov Trarepa; published in Greek by Hensehen and Papebroche (Acta Sanctorum, vol. i. April, p. xlvi., and in Latin, p. 366). Other Latin translations are also found. 12. Aoyos els irpoffKvvi}(nv rov ti/a'.ov Kal £wottoiov ffravpov
rrj juea'oi'7}(rTi,uw9 published in Greek with the
translation of J. Gretser, in the work of the latter De Cruce (vol. ii. p. 287). There is also a Latin translation in the Bibliotheca Patrum (vol. xiv. p. 900). 13. Kavoov el? t^v (rravpoTrpQffK.vvria'iv^ a hymn on the adoration of the cross, published by Gretser (ibid. vol. iii. p. 487). 14. Kai'&j/ iJ/aAAo-Hevos els t^\v ava<TT'f)\<»)criv tuv ayiuv elKovuv, published in Greek and Latin by Baronius (Annal. a. 842) and in Latin in the Bibl. Patrum (Lugd. vol. xiv. p. 898). It is questionable, however, whether this composition is authentic, as it indicates a much more peaceable recognition of the adoration of images than was the case in the time of Theodoras. It has been supposed therefore that it is the composition of a Theodoras of later date. 15. 'H /j.iKpa Xeyo/jLevrj Kar^x^rns. A Latin version of this will be found in the Bibl. Pair. (Colon, vol. ix., Paris, vol. ii., Lugd. vol. xiv. p. 850.) 16. 'Ey/coJjU/oz/ -jrepl tov ayiov RapOo\oiu.aiov. A Latin translation was published by Lucas Dacherius (Spidlegium^ vol. ii. p. 13, Paris, 1659), and by Combefis (Bibl. Concionat. vol. vii. p. 755). 17. 'EyK(t>/iiiov els rbv ayiov *A.Tr6(TTO\ov Kal Evayye-xktt^v 'ladwrjv Tbv &eo\6yov, published in a Latin version by Combefis (ibid.). 18. Sermo brcvis in Dominicam quartam Quadrayesimae, in the version of Joannes Livineius, published together with the Catechesis. 19. Capitula quattuor de Vita ascetica^ published in Greek and Latin bv P. Possinus (Thesaurus Asceticus^ Paris, 1684). 20. *EyKto(j.iov els r^v rpirrjv eitpeviv rrjs n/j.ias K€(pa\ys rov ayiov vrpoSpoVou, published with the version of Combefis by Du Fresne (Traite MstoriquG du chefde S. Baptiste, Paris, 1666). 21. Tpondpia, Kcwoi/ey, &c. published in the various Greek collections of such hymns. 22. 'H /JLeydX? /car^x^Ti/crf, divided into three parts, the cm, /j.7]vo\6yioV) and SifiaffKaXia. This work is yet unpublished. Fabricius (Bibl. Grace, vol. x. p. 449, &c.) has a notice of the MSS. in which it is extant, a list of the titles of the 217 discourses of xvhich the work consists, and one of the dis • courses (the tenth) printed at full length. The reader is also referred to Fabricius (/. c. p. 471, &c.) for a list of various other unpublished works of Theodoras. (Baronius, /. c. ; Cave, Hist. Litt. vol. ii. p. 8, &c.; Fabric. 1. c. p. 434, &c.)
70. tabennensis, abbot of Tabenna, was born about a. d. 314, at Latopolis in the Thebaid. He belonged to a Christian family of station and wealth. As his mother is frequently mentioned, but not his father, it would appear that she was left a widow while Theodoras was still young. He had two brothers, Macarius and Paphnutius, who were also monks at Tabenna. Macarius was older than Theodoras, and his half-brother. Theodoras appears to have addicted himself to ascetic rules of living at a very early age. When not more than thirteen or fourteen years old, he joined some recluses, and was soon afterwards introduced to Pa-chomius at Tabenna, by whom he was received with great favour, and under whom he is said to have made rapid advances in all monastic virtues. His example seems to have induced his mother to enter a convent which Pachomius had established. Notwithstanding his youth, Theodoras was employed by Pachomius to supply his place in instructing the other monks, and even the great master himself professed to derive edification from the discourses of his young disciple. He also took him with him, or sent him alone, to visit