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Scholia to Aristophanes were derived. A Commentary on the Odyssey by a certain Theon is quoted in the Etymdogicwm Magnum (s. v. irtfeAos). In one of the Scholia on Aristophanes (Nub. 397), the genuineness of which, however, is doubtful (see Dindorf, Annot. ad foe.), Theon is mentioned as one of the commentators on Apollonius Rhodius. It is very possible, however, that one or both of these Commentaries on Homer and Apollonius, should be assigned to Aelius Theon, of Alexandria, No. 5, below. (Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. i. p. 525, vol. ii. p. 500, vol. vi. p. 380.)
2. A later grammarian, the contemporary and friend of Plutarch, in whose Quaestiones Convivia-les he is often mentioned.
3. Of Alexandria, a Stoic philosopher, who flourished under Augustus, later than Areios, and wrote a Commentary on Apollodorus's Introduction to Physiology, tt)s A.iro\\o'8d)pov (pvffioXoyiKrjs slar-aywyijs uTr^/^Tj/xa, and three books on Rhetoric, T€xv£>v p-rjropiKwv )3i§A.ia yf. (Suid. s. v.J
4. Of Antioch, a Stoic philosopher, wrote a Defence of Socrates, 'Airohoyia ^caKpdrovs. (Suid. s. v.)
5. aelius theon, of Alexandria, a sophist and rhetorician, wrote a treatise on Rhetoric (rex*7??), a work Kepi irpoyvfjiva.o'iJ.d.Twv (or, as some scholars read the text of Suidas, the words rex^n Tepl irpo-7u,u.i/a(rju.aTcoj/ form only one title), Commentaries on Xenophon, Isocrates, and Demosthenes, Rhetorical Themes (prjropiKal uTrofletreis), Questions respecting the Composition of Language (^/jT^uaru Trepl <m>Ta|ea>s \6yov\ and numerous other works (Suid. s. v. ; Eudoc. p. 231). The Upoyv^vdar-juara is still extant. It is an excellent and useful treatise on the proper system of preparation for the profession of an orator, according to the rules laid down by Hennogenes and Aphthonius. It was first printed, in Greek only, by Angelus Bar-batus, Romae, 1520, 4to ; again, with an amended text and a Latin version, by Joachim Camerarius, Basil. 1541, 8vo ; by Dan. Heinsius, from the Elzevir press, Lugd. Bat. 1626,8 vo ; by Joan. Scheiferus, with the Proyymnasmata of Aphthonius, Upsal. 1670 or 1680, 8vo. ; and recent!}-, with the Scholia, Notes, and Indices, by C. E. Finckh, Stuttgard. 1834, 8vo. and also in Walz's Ehetores Graeci, vol. i. pp. 137, foil. Kuster (ad Suid. s. v.} thinks that Aelius Theon was the author of the Commentary on Apollonius, mentioned" above (No. 1), and also of the extant Scholia on Aratus, which others refer to the father of Hypatia. (Fabric. Bill. Graec. vol. vi. pp. 97, 98 ; Hoffmann, Lexicon Bibliogr. Scriptor. Graccorum, s. v.}
64 valerius theon, a sophist, who wrote a Commentary on Andocides (Suid. s. -y.), from which the suspicion arises that he is the same person as the preceding, and that there is some confusion between the names Aelius and Valerius.
7. Of Sidon, a son of the sophist Gymnasius, and himself a sophist, taught in his native city, under Constantine the Great, who conferred upon him the dignities of consul and praefect. (Suid.s. v.}
8. A sophist and rhetorician, who was the instructor of Damascius in oratory. (Phot. Bibl. Cod. 181, p. 126, b. 40, ed. Bekker.) He must therefore have flourished at the end of the fifth and the beginning of the sixth centuries of our era. Some particulars respecting him are preserved, from Damascius, by Photius (Cod. 242, p. 339, b. 7), and by Suidas (s. v.), who tells us that Theon was
the descendant of S. Marcella, and the son and pupil of Ecdicius. The passage of Damascius, quoted by Photius, is to the effect that Theon was naturally somewhat obtuse, but so fond of learning and so laborious was he. that he acquired the most perfect knowledge of the ancient poets and orators, and the most thorough technical acquaintance with the art of both ; but he was never able, though very desirous, to reduce his knowledge to practice, and to write either poems or orations. His only work known to Suidas was a Treatise on Rhetoric,
A list of some other persons of this name is given by Fabricius. (Bibl. Graec. vol. vi. pp. 98, 99). [P. S.]
THEON (0eW), the name of three physicians : — 1. A native of Alexandria (Galen, De San. Tu. iii. 3, vol. vi, p. 182), who was originally an athleta, and afterwards a gym-nasta (ibid. ii. 4. p. 114); and who wrote two works on the subject of gymnastics, one entitled Hep* twj/ Kara Me'pos Tvjj.vcL(ri(av, De Particularibus ExercitiiS) the other Hepl rwv ru/xi/atm/cai/, De Gymnasticis (ibid. iii. 8. pp. 208, 209). These works are several times mentioned by Galen, but are not now extant. With respect to Theon's date, it can only be positively determined that he lived after Hippocrates (ibid. ii. 4. p. 105), and before Galen ; but, as Galen does not speak of him as having lived shortly before his own time, he may perhaps be placed in the third or second century b. c.
2. A physician who acquired some reputation in Gaul in the latter half of the fourth century after Christ. (Eunap. Vit. lomci.}
3. A physician of Alexandria, who wrote a comprehensive medical work entitled 'AvOpwiros, " Man," in which he treated of diseases in a systematic order, beginning with the head, and descending to the feet, and also of pharmacy. As Photius calls him (Biblioth. % 220) by the title of " Archiater," he must have lived after the beginning of the Christian era ; and as Galen does not mention him, he may be supposed to have lived later than the second century. If (as is not improbable) he is the same physician, one of whose medical formulae is quoted by A e tins (i. 3. 58. p. 127), he must have lived before the sixth century. Haller places him in the reign of Theodosius, that is, in the fourth century (Bibl. Medic. Pract. vol. i. p. 287), which may be quite correct, but he does not state the reason for his assigning so precise a date.
Theon, the commentator on Nicander mentioned by Stephanus Byzantinus (s. v. KopwTrr)}, is reck oned as a physician by Fabricius (Bibl. Gr. vol. xiii. p. 434) and Haller (I. c. p. 138), but it is per haps more probable that he was a grammarian by profession, as he appears to have written a com mentary also on Apollonius Rhodius and on Lyco- phron. [W.A.G.]
THEON of Samos, is mentioned by Quintilian (xii. 10. § 6) as one of those painters who flourished from the time of Philip to that of the successors of Alexander, the age of Pamphilus and Melanthius, Apelles and Protogenes. The peculiar merit of Theon was his prolific fancy (concipiendis visionibus, quas (f>avTaaias vacant], a characteristic denoting that excessive refinement in which the decline of art was already commencing, and which is still more strongly exhibited in the description given