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THEOPHILUS.

has been supposed that some of the words which he uses belong to a later period than the seventh cen­tury ; so that'he may possibly be the same person who is addressed by the title " Protospatharius " by Photius (Epist. 123, 193, pp. 164, 292, ed. Lond. 1651) in the ninth. He appears to have embraced in some degree the Peripatetic philo­sophy ; but he was certainly a Christian, and ex­presses himself on all possible occasions like a man of great piety : in his physiological work especially he everywhere points out with admiration the wis­dom, power, and goodness of God as displayed in the formation of the human body.

Five works are attributed to him, of which the longest and most interesting is an anatomical and phy­siological treatise in five books, entitled Tlepl ttjs tov "AfflpcoTrou KaTatr/cewjs, De Corporis Humani Fa-brica. It contains very little original matter, as it is almost entirely abridged from Galen's great work, " De Usu Partium Corporis Humani," from which however Theophilus now and then differs, and which he sometimes appears to have misunderstood. In the fifth book he has inserted large extracts from Hippocrates " De Genitura," and " De Natura Pueri." He recommends in several places the dis­section of animals, but he does not appear ever to have examined a human body : in one passage he advises the student to dissect an ape, or else a bear, or, if neither of these animals can be procured, to take whatever he can get, " but by all means," adds he, "let him dissect something." (v. 11. § 3.) The work was first published in a Latin translation by J. P. Crassus, Venet. 1536, 8vo., together with Hippocrates " De Medicamentis Purgantibus." This translation was several times reprinted, and is inserted by H. Stephens in his " Medicae Artis Principes," Paris, 1567, fol. The MS. which Cras­sus used is probably lost, as none of those which are now known to exist agrees with hjs translation. The original text was first published by Guil. Morell, without Latin translation, preface, or notes, Paris, 1555, 8vo., from a MS. at Paris, which ap­pears to be more defective than that used by Cras­sus, though even that was not quite complete Morell's edition is now become scarce, and was in­serted by Fabricius in the twelfth vol. of his "Bibliotheca Graeca," together with the Latin translation by Crassus. Two long passages which were missing in the fourth and fifth books were published from a MS. at Venice by Andr. Mus-toxydes and Demetr. Schinas in their collection, entitled ^,v\\oy^ 'ATroo"ira(riJ.dTwv 'Aj'e/cSoreoj/ t'El\\f]viK.Siv^ Venet. 1817. 8vo. The last and most complete edition is that by Dr. Greenhill, Oxon. 1842, 8vo., containing a corrected text, the Latin version by Crassus, various readings, notes, and indices.

II. His treatise Hepl Oi/pwz>, De Urinis, in like manner contains little or nothing that is original, but is a good compendium of what was known on the subject by the ancients, and was highly esteemed in the Middle Ages. It first appeared in a Latin translation by Pontius (or Ponticus) Viru-nius (or Virmius) in several early editions of the collection known by the name of the " Articella." It was first published in a separate form in a new Latin translation by Albanus Torinus, Basil. 1533, 8vo., together with the treatise "De Pulsibus," which version was reprinted in 1535, Argent. 8vo., and is inserted by H. Stephens in his " Medicae Artis Principes." The Greek text was first pub-

1087

THEOPHRASTUS.

lished without the name of Theophilus, under the title of" latrosophistae De Urinis Liber Singularis," Paris, 1608,12mo., with a new Latin translation by Fed. Morell ; which edition was inserted entire by Chartier in the eighth vol. of his edition of Hippo­crates and Galen. The best edition is that by Thorn. Guidot, Lugd. Bat. 1703 (and 1731) 8vo., containing an improved text, a new Latin version by the editor, and copious and learned prolegomena and notes. The Greek text only, from Guidot's edition, is inserted by J. L. Ideler in the first volume of his " Physici et Medici Graeci Minores," Berol. 1841, 8vo.

III. A short treatise Ilepl Ataxcup^arw^, De Excrementis Alvinis, was first published by Guidot in Greek with a Latin translation by himself, at the end of his edition of the " De Urinis ; " and the Greek text alone is republished by Ideler in his "Phys. et Med. Graeci Min."

IV. A Commentary on the "Aphorisms" of Hip­pocrates, which is sometimes attributed to a person named Philotlieus, is noticed under that name, p. 331.

V. A short treatise Hepi ^vy/juS^ De Pulsibus, was first published by F. Z. Ermerins in his "Anecdota Medica Graeca" (Lugd. Bat. 1840, 8vo.), with a Latin translation by the editor, various readings, and a few notes. It appears to be quite different from the work on the same sub­ ject by Philaretus, which has been sometimes attributed to Theophilus [philaretus]. (See Penny Cyclop, art. Theophilus', and the references there given, from which work the present article has been abridged.) [W. A. G.]

THEOPHILUS, an artist in metal, was the maker of the celebrated iron helmet of Alexander, which glittered like polished silver, and the neck- chain of which was studded with, precious stones. (Plut. Alcx. 32.) Plutarch does not expressly tell us that the helmet was chased, but it can hardly be supposed that its magnificence consisted only in its polish; and therefore we do not hesitate to place Theophilus among the most distinguished of the Grecian caelatores. (Comp. Diet, of Antiq. s. v. Caelatura, 2d ed.; R. Rochette, Lettre a M. Scliorn, p. 418, 2d ed.) [P. S.]

THEOPHRASTUS (©eJ.^ao-ros), the Greek philosopher, was a native of Eresus in Lesbos. (Strabo, xiii. p. 618 ; Diog. Lae'rt. v. 36, &c.) Before he left his native city the bent of his mind was directed towards philosophy by Leucippus or Alcippus, a man of whom we know nothing further. Leaving Eresus, he betook himself to Athens, where he attached himself at first to Plato, but afterwards to Aristotle. (Diog. Lae'rt. /. c.} The story that the latter changed the name of this, his favourite pupil, from Tyrtamus to Theophrastus (for the purpose, as is stated, of avoiding the ca­cophony, and of indicating the fluent and graceful address of the young man ; Strabo, I. c,; Diog. Lae'rt. v. 38, ib. Menag.), is scarcely credible. Nor can we place more reliance on the accounts that this change of name took place at a later period. (He is already called Theophrastus in Aristotle's will ; see Diog. Lae'rt. v. 12, &c.) The authorities who would lead us to suppose this express them­selves very indistinctly. (Cic. Orat. 19 ; Siquidem et Theophrastus divinitate loquendi nomen invenit ; Quintil. InsL Orat. xi. 1, in Tlwophrasto tarn est eloquendi nitor ille divinus ut ex eo nomen quoque traocisse dicatur.) It is much more likelv that the

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