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. THOMAS.

His Attic Lexicon was first published by Zach. Caliergus, Rom. 1517, 8vo. ; and soon after by Fr. Asulanus, who had not seen the former edition, in the Aldine collection of Greek Lexicographers, entitled Dictionarium Graecum, Venet. 1524, fol.; reprinted 1525. fol.; then by Michael Vascosanus, with the Attic Lexicons of Phrynichus and Mos-chopulus, Lutet. 1532, 8vo. ; the next edition was that of Nicolas Blancard, who made many rash changes in the text; a very excellent edition, enriched with a body of notes by Dan. Heinsius, J. Chr. Wolf, and many other scholars, was pub­lished by Johan. Steph. Bernard, Lugd. Bat. 1757, 8vo.; and, lastly, the work has been recently re-edited by Ritschl, with valuable Prolegomena, under the following title :—Thomae Magistri sive Theoduli MonacJii Ecloga Vocum AUicarum. Eix Recensione et cum Prolegomenis Friderici RUsclielii. Halis Sax. 1831, 1832, 8vo. An edition of the Orations and Epistles, which were then known, was published in Greek and Latin, Upsal. 1693, 4to., by Laurentius Norrmann, who had edited the Laudatio Gregorii alone two years before, Upsal. 1691, 4to.; and two other orations, namely that to Andronicus Palaeologus de Regis Officiis, and the fellow to it, de Subditorum erga Regem Officiis, have been published in the Nova Collectio Vctcrum Scriptorum of Angelo Maio (vol. iii. pp. 145, foil., pp. 173, foil. 1827, 4to.), who gives the titles of several unedited letters and orations of Thomas, which he promises to publish. Some Excerpta from Thomas Magister are printed in the Anecdota of L. Bachmann, vol. ii. 1828, 8vo.

(Cave, Hist. Litt. s. a. 1311, Appendix, p. 15, ed. Basil.; Fabric. Bibl. Grace, vol. vi. pp. 181, foil.; Schrb'ckh, Christl. Kirchengesch. vol. xxx. p. 298 ; Scholl, Gescli. d. Griccli. Litt. vol. iii. pp. 152, 207 ; Hoifmann, Lex. Bibliogr. Script. Grace.)

2. thomas, a monk of Crete, whose selection from the Lexicon of Suidas exists in MS. in several libraries, appears to be a different' person from Thomas Magister. (Fabric. Bibl. Gr. vol. vi. p. 417.)

3. A patrician and marshal of the Byzantine circus (TrarpiKios Kal \oyo6errjs rov dpojmov), wrote an epitaph on a certain Anastasius, who had gained many victories in the horse-races ; which is preserved in the Anthology of Planudes. (Anih. Planud. p. 408, Steph., p. 543, Wechel.; Brunck, Anal. vol. iii. p. 124 ; Jacobs, Antli. Grace, vol. iv. p. 94, vol. xiii. p. 961.)

4. The Planudean Anthology also contains an epigram in praise of Demosthenes, Thucydides, and Aristeides, as the three greatest of Greek rhe­toricians, by a certain Thomas Scholasticus, the same person, perhaps, as Thomas Magister, with whom Planudes was contemporary. Nay, it is possible that Thomas Patricius (No. 3) may also have been identical with Thomas Magister, who may have held the office in the circus before his retirement to the monastery. (Anth. Plan. p. 376, Steph.,p.514,Wechel.; Brunck,I.e. p. 125; Jacobs, I.e. p. 95 ; Fabric. Bibl. Grace, vol. iv. p. 497.)

A few other insignificant persons of the name are mentioned by Fabricius, Bibl. Grace, vol. xi. pp. 719, 720- [P. S.]

THOMAS (Oco/xas), a physician of the emperor Justinian, who was also a privy counsellor (cuttj-K/xrjTOjs, or a secrctis), and stood high in his favour. He was put to death for the part he took in the riots at Constantinople called nikcc, a. d. 532. (Chron. Pascli. pp. 338, 340.) [W. A. G.j

VOL. III.

THORAX.

THOON (0oW). 1. One of the Gigantes, was killed by the Moerae. (Apollod. i. 6. § 2.)

2. A Trojan who was killed by Odysseus. (Horn. II. xi. 422.)

3. A son of Phaenops, who, with his brother Xanthus, was slain by Diomedes. (Horn. //. v. 152.) A Phaeacian of this name occurs in the Odyssey (viii. 113). [L. S.]

THORANIUS, or TORA'NIUS. 1. A le­gate of Q. Metellus Pius in Spain, was defeated and slain by Sertorius about B. c. 77. He is called Thorius by Floras. (Plut. Sertor. 12; Flor. iii. 22. § 6.)

2. One of the Pompeian party, who was in exile in b. c. 45, and to whom Cicero addressed two letters of consolation, which are extant (ad Fam. vi. 20,21, where the name is usually written Toranius or Torannius.)

3. C. thoranius or toranius, was the tutor or guardian of Octavianus, and the colleague of his father in the aedileship, but was nevertheless proscribed by the triumvirs in b. c. 43, at the request of his son, who was anxious to obtain pos­session of his property. His son soon dissipated the inheritance which he had acquired by parri­cide, was convicted of theft, and died in exile. (Appian, B. C. iv. 12, 18 ; Suet. Octav. 27 ; Val. Max. ix. 11. § 5 ; Oros. vi. 18.)

4. thoranius, tribune of the plebs in b. c. 25, placed his father by his side in the seat assigned to the tribunes in the theatre, although his father was at the time a freedman. (Dion Cass. liii, 27.)

5. thoranius, or toranius, a celebrated mango or slave-dealer in the time of Antony and Augustus. He is called Toranius Flaccus by Ma-crobius. (Plin. H. N. vii. 10. s. 12 ; Macrob. Sat. ii. 4 ; Suet. Octav. 69.)

THORAX (0e6po£). 1. Of Larissa in Thes-saly, and one of the powerful family of the Aleua-dae. Thorax and his brothers, wishing to confirm or to increase their power, were among those who urged Xerxes to invade Greece, and promised him their assistance in the enterprise. In the Persian king's retreat, after the battle of Salamis, Thorax formed one of his escort, after which he still con­tinued to show his zeal in the cause of the in­vaders, and was present with Mardonius at the battle of Plataea, b. c. 479. When the Persians had been finally driven from Greece, Leotychides, king of Sparta, led an army into Thessaly to punish those who had sided with the barbarians, but the Aleuadae purchased his forbearance with bribes. (Herod, vi. 72, vii. 6, ix. 1, 58;) [leotychides, No. 2.]

2. A Lacedaemonian, is mentioned by Diodorus (xiii. 76) as acting under Callicratidas during his operations in Lesbos, in b. c. 405, and as having been commissioned by him, after the capture of Methymna, to conduct the heavy-armed troops to Mytilene. In the following year we again find Thorax in command of the land-force which co­operated with the fleet under Lysander in the storming of Lampsacus (Xen. Hell. ii. 1. § 18 ; Plut. Lys. 9) ; and he was left at Samos as har-most by Lysander, when the latter was on his way to Athens after the battle of Aegospotami. (Diod. xiv. 3.) According to Plutarch, when the satrap Pharnabazus sent to Sparta to complain of ravages committed in his territory by Lysander, the Lace­daemonian government put Thorax to death, as he was a friend and colleague of the accused admiral,

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