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TIMARCHIDES.

the wall of a house at Pompeii. (Mus. Borb. iv. 3.; Pompeii, vol. ii. p. 165.) (2) With his picture of the contest of Ajax and Ulysses for the arms of Achilles, he gained a victory over Parrhasius, respecting which, and the arrogant remark of Par­rhasius on the occasion, see parrhasius, p. 128, b. (3) The picture of the death of Palamedes at Ephesus, mentioned by Photius (Bill. Cod. 190, vol. i. p. 146, b. 27, ed. Bekker) is ascribed to Timanthes by Tzetzes (Chil. viii. 198). (4) A picture of his was preserved at Rome, in the temple of Peace, which Pliny describes in the following "words: Pinxit et heroas, absolutissimi operis, arte ipsa complexus vires pingendi. (5) Lastly, as a striking example of his skill and invention, Pliny mentions his picture of a sleeping Cyclops, of a very small size (parvula tabula), in which the magnitude of the figure was indicated by the in­sertion of some satyrs, measuring his thumb with a thyrsus. Timanthes is mentioned by Cicero (Brut. 22) as one of the painters who used only four colours. The sense, in which this is to be understood, is explained in the Dictionary of An­tiquities^ s. v. Colores.

2. A painter, contemporary with Aratus. His picture of the battle of Pellene, in which Aratus defeated the Aetolians (01. 135. 1, b.c. 240), is praised by Plutarch (Arat. 32). [P. S.]

TIMARCHIDES, a freedman and an accensus cf Verres, was one of the most villainous instru­ments of the oppressions of Verres. (Cic. Verr. ii. 28, 53, 54, iii. 66, v. 45.)

TIMARCHIDES and TI'MOCLES (T^ap-Xufys, Ti/ao/cA^9), of Athens, the sons of Polycles, have already been spoken of under polycles, p. 459, a., where their statues of Asclepius and Athena are mentioned, and their date is discussed ; for it is, of course, dependent on the date assigned to Polycles. In addition to the remarks in that article, it should be observed that, in the passage of Pliny referred to (ft. N. xxxvi. 5. s. 4. § 10), not only are Polycles and the sons of Timarchides mentioned as the makers of statues in the portico of Octavia, but also Timarchides himself, as the maker of a statue of Apollo, holding the cithara, in his temple, which formed a part of those build­ings. Moreover, it is most probable that the pas­sage, correctly read, contains some further informa­tion about " the sons of Timarchides," who are nameless in the ordinary text, as established by Harduin. The old text had " Item Polycles et Dionysius^ Timarchidis filii" fyc.; and, although the first four words are not contained in the MSS. used by Harduin, who therefore rejected them, they are found, with a slight variation, in the Bamberg MS., which gives " Idem polycles et dio-nysius timarcidis, fili" i. e. filius. The last word is confirmed by the Munich MS., which has " ma-cJiidis filius " Hence it would, appear to be pro­bable that the true reading is " Idem Policies (who had been mentioned in the preceding sen­tence) et DionysiuS) Timarchidis filius" or, as Jan proposes to read it, " lidem Polycles et Dionysius (for the latter also is mentioned in the preceding sen­tence), Timarchidis filii" (Sillig's edition of Pliny and Jan's Supplement.)

Slight as is the difference between the two readings, they have a very different effect on the succession of this family of artists. According to the former, we have only to add to the genealogy the name of Dionysius, thus:—

TIMARCHUS. Polycles

Timarchides

Timocles

Dionysius.

But then we have the somewhat improbable result of a grandfather and grandson working together on the same statue. If, on the other hand, we adopt the reading of Jan, and combine it with the state­ment of Pausanias, that Timocles and Timarchides were the sons of Polycles, and if we still identify this Polycles with the Polycles of Pliny, the result is the absurdity that " the same Polycles " was both the son and the father of Timarchides. Either, therefore, we must place another Timarchides at the beginning of the genealogy, thus—

Polycles

Timarchides

Dionysius

Timarchides

Timocles

or, we must reject the word idem or iidem (re­storing, perhaps, item in its place), and thus obtain another Polycles, the brother of Dionysius: or, lastly, the identification of the Polycles of Pau­sanias and Pliny may be given up, and it may be supposed that we have two different and somewhat distinct portions of this artistic family, namely,

Timocles

Polycles

Timarchides,

the artists mentioned by Pausanias, and

Polycles

Timocles and Timarchides (brothers)

Dionysius

those mentioned by Pliny. In this position the question must be left for the solution of other scholars, and for the instruction of students in the difficulties of criticism. It must, however, be re­membered that the text cannot be regarded as fixed by the authority of the Bamberg MS.

The works of Timarchides and Timocles at Rome were in marble. Pausanias does not specify the material of their statues which he mentions. Pliny, however, includes Timarchides in his list of those statuaries in bronze, who made atJdetas et armatos et venatores sacrificantesque. (H. N. xxxiv. 8. s. 19. § 34.) [P. S.]

TIMARCHUS (Tipapxos), historical. 1. An Athenian general, who, in conjunction with Leo-trophides, was sent in command of an expedition against Megara, in b. c. 408. (Diod. xiii. 65.)

2. An Athenian politician, the son of Arizelus, a contemporary of Demosthenes and Aeschines. He was an active orator, and took a conspicuous part in public affairs, being the author of a con­siderable number of decrees. One of these forbade the exportation of arms or marine stores for the service of Philip of Macedon, under pain of death. Timarchus was, however, a man of the most profli­gate and abandoned habits. He joined Demosthenes

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