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On this page: Timocles – Timocrates – Timocreon

TIMOCLES-

arisen, according to a frequent and well-known error of transcription, out of a confusion with the Word TiyuoAeWros just before, that the balance of probability is in favour of the common reading, and accordingly the passage is placed by Dindorf and Ahrens among the fragments of Sophocles (Fabric. Bill. Graec. vol. ii. p. 325 ; Welcker, die Griech. Tragod. p. 1100 ; Meineke, Hist. Crit. Com. Graec. p. 430 ; Wagner, Frag. Com. Graec. p. 146, in Didot's BMiotJieca). ,

2. A distinguished Athenian comic poet of the Middle Comedy, who lived at a period when the revival of political energy, in consequence of the encroachments of Philip, restored to the Middle Comedy much of the vigour and real aim of the Old, is conspicuous for the freedom with which he discussed public men and measures, as well as for the number of his dramas, and the purity of his style, in which scarcely any departures from the best standards of Attic diction can be detected. His time is indicated by several allusions in his plays, especially to the Attic orators and statesmen. Like Antiphanes, he made sarcastic allusions to the vehement spirit and rhetorical boldness of Demo­sthenes, whom he also attacked, with Hyperides, and the other orators who had received money from Harpalus. (Pseudo-PIut. Vit. X. Orat. p. 845, b.; Timoc. Heroes, ap. Ath. vi. p. 224, a., Delus or Delius, ap. Ath. viii. p. 341, e.; Clinton, F. H. s. aa. 343, 336, 324, where, as well as in Meineke, other such personal allusions are mentioned.) Hence the period during which he flourished ap­pears to have extended from about the middle of the fourth century b. c. till after b. c. 324, so that at the beginning of his career he was in part con­temporary with Antiphanes, and at the end of it, with Menander. (Comp. Ath. vii. p. 245, c.) There is also an allusion to one of his plays, the Icarii, in a fragment of Alexis (Ath. iii. p. 120, a). From these statements it is clear that he is rightly re­ferred to the Middle Comedy, although Pollux (x. 154) reckons him among the poets of the New (to?s j/ecorepojy), perhaps on account of the late period down to which he flourished. He is the latest of the poets of the Middle Comedy, excepting X enarchus and Theophilus.

Suidas, who has here fallen into his frequent error of making two persons out of one, assigns to Timocles, in his two articles upon him, nineteen dramas, on the authority of Athenaeus, in whose work are also found some titles not mentioned bv

V

Suidas, and a few more are gathered from other sources. The list, when completed and corrected, stands thus : — Aiyvimoi, BaAa^e?oj>, AaKTt$Puos, AijAos or perhaps A^Aios, A^/J-ocrdrvpoi^ Aiovvffid,-

?, "Hpcoes, "I/caprot ffdrvpoL. Kavvioi, KeVrau-po9 3) Ae|a/Ae*/^, KofitraAos, M]Qf], Mapa0c6i>toi, Necupa, 'OpefrrauTOKAeiS^s, noAimpcry/xwi/, JIoz'-Ti/cds, Tloptyvpa (but perhaps this belongs to Xenarchus), n^KT^s, 2a7r</>c6, ^vvepidoi (doubtful), 4>(Ao8i/ca(7T779, ^6u5oA77(rTai. Some of these titles involve important questions, which are fully dis­cussed by Meineke. (Fabric. Bill. Graec. vol. ii. pp. 503, 504 ; Meineke, Frag. Com. Graec. vol. i. pp. 428—433, vol. iii. pp. 590—613 ; Editio Minor, pp. 798—811.)

3. Of Syracuse, a supposed author of one of the pretended works of Orpheus, namely, the Swr^pta, which was also ascribed to Persinus of Miletus (Suid. s. v. 'Op^xrt'f ; Eudoc. p. 318). Nothing

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TIMOCREON.

more is known of him. (Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. i. p. 158 ; Meineke, vol. i. pp. 430, 431.)

4. There is also an almost unintelligible passage in Photius (Epist. 55, p. Ill), about a certain mendacious writer of the name of Timocles. (Meineke, /. c.) [P. S.j

TIMOCLES, artist. [timarchides].

TIMOCRATES (T^oKprfrijs). 1. A Lacedae­monian, was one of the three counsellors (Brasidas and Lycophron being his colleagues) who were sent to assist Cnemus after his first defeat by Phormion in the Corinthian gulf, in b. c. 429. In the second battle there shortly after, Timocrates was on board of a Leucadian galley, which was one of the twenty fast-sailing ships appointed to prevent the Athenians from escaping to Naupactus. This vessel, in the pursuit, far outstripped the rest of the squadron, and the hindmost Athenian galley, closely chased by it, wheeled suddenly round a merchant ship which was lying at anchor, struck her pursuer in the centre, and sank her. Timocrates hereupon slew himself, and his body was washed into the harbour of Naupactus (Thuc. ii. 85—92).

2. An Athenian, was one of the commissioners for concluding the fifty years' truce between Athens and Sparta, in b.c. 421, and also the separate treaty between these states in the same year. (Thuc. v. 19, 24.) We may perhaps identify him with the father of the Athenian commander, Aris-toteles. (Thuc. iii. 105.)

3. (Unless he is to be identified with No. 2.) An Athenian, who, in b. c. 406, was a member of the Council of Five Hundred, before which the generals who had conquered at Arginusae gave in their account. Having heard it, Timocrates made and carried a proposal that they should all be kept in custody and handed over to the judgment of the people (Xen. Hell. i. 7. § 3.)

4. A Rhodian, who was sent into Greece by the satrap Tithraustes in b. c. 395, taking with him fifty talents wherewith to bribe the leading men in the several states to excite a war against Sparta at home, and so to compel the return of Agesilaus from his victorious career in Asia. Plutarch calls him Hermocrates (Xen. Hell. iii. 5. § Ij Paus. iii. 9; Plut. Artacc. 20.)

5. A Lacedaemonian, was one of the ambassadors who were sent to Athens in b. c. 369, to settle the terms of alliance between the Athenians and the Spartans (Xen. Hell. vii. § 13.) [cephisodotus, No. 2.]

6. A Syracusan, who commanded a squadron of twelve galleys, sent by Dionysius the Younger to the aid of Sparta in b. c. 366. The arrival of this force enabled the Spartans to reduce Sellasia, which had revolted from them. (Xen. Hell. vii. 4. § 12.)

7. An Athenian, the proposer of a law providing that a public debtor should be exempt from impri­ sonment on his giving security for payment within a certain time. For this, Timocrates was prosecuted by Diodorus and Euctemon, and for them Demo­ sthenes wrote the oration (fcara Ti^uo/cpciTOus), which was delivered by Diodorus in b. c. 35 r6 [androtion ; mklanopus.] It is a question whether this Timocrates should be identified with a person of the same name, who was the first husband of the sister of Onetor, and who surren­ dered her to Aphobus. (Dem. c. Onet. i. pp. 865, &c.) [E. E.]

TIMOCREON (TtAto/cpeW), of Rhodes, a lyric

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