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said to have died in consequence of refusing to suffer a surgeon to come to him to set a broken limb. His grave is said to have been planted with thorns, and the following epitaph upon him is preserved in the Greek Anthology (Brunck, Anal. vol. i. p. 153 ; Jacobs, Anih. Graec. vol. i. p. 86) : • —
a 8' ov Tre&reafle, KaKol 5e /ca/ccos a,Tr6\oia6e.
The few details recorded of his eccentricities by the authors above cited have no value except as contributing to the study of his whole character, as one type of the diseased human mind, a subject which lies beyond our present limits, but for which the reader will find ample materials in comparing the ancient authorities with Shakspeare's Timon of Athen^ and in this comparison Mr. Knight's In troductory Notice to that tragedy will be found to give valuable assistance. [P. S.]
TIMON, a statuary, of whore nothing is known beyond the mention of him by Pliny as one of those who made athletas et armatos et venatores sa~ crificantesoue. (Plin. H.N. xxxiv. 8. s. 19. § 34.) [P.S.]
Uepl 2Kv6w. (Schol. ad Apoll. Rhod. iii. 1235, iv. 328, 1217.)
TIMONIDES (TijUwn'oV), accompanied Dion into Sicily, and fought on his side. On one occasion, when Dion had been wounded while fighting against the mercenaries of Dionysius, and was obliged to retire from the combat, he appointed Timonides to the command of his troops. The history of Dion's wars in Sicily was related by Timonides in some letters to the philosopher Speu-sippus, which are quoted by Plutarch and Diogenes Laertius. (Pint. Dion, cc. 22, 30, 31, 35 ; Diog. Laert. iv. 5, where Ti^uwi/i'S^s must be read instead of 2t|uco;'(8?]s ; C. Muller, Fragm. Historic. Graec. vol. ii. p. 83, Paris, 1848.) The Scholiast on Theocritus (i. 63) quotes a work on Sicily by Simonides, where Timonides is probably likewise the correct reading. In the article simonides (p. 836, b) an error has been committed, which mav be corrected from the preceding account.
TIMOSTHENES (TVotrfleV^), the Rhodian, was the admiral of the fleet of Ptolemy Phila-delphus, who reigned from b. c. 285 to 247. He may therefore be placed about b. c. 282. He wrote a work on Harbours (irepl A/,u«/wi/), in ten books, which was copied by Eratosthenes, and whkh is frequently cited by the ancient writers. Strabo says (ix. p. 421) that Timosthenes also wrote poetry. (Marcian. Heracleot. p. 63 ; Strab. ii. 92, iii. p. 140, et alibi ; Harpocrat. s. v. €<£' iepov ; Schol. ad Theocr. xiii. 22 ; Steph. Byz. s. vv. 'Ayddrj, 'Apra/crj, et alibi ; Vossius, dc Hist. Graec. pp. 147, 148, ed. Westermann ; Clinton, Fast. Hell. vol. iii. p. 508.)
TIMOSTRATUS (T^oVrparos), a comic poet, of unknown time, the author of four dramas, vA(rcoTOs, ndvy napaKaraO^KT], and 4>:Ao5e0'7roT77S, of which we have scarcely any remnants, beyond the titles. (Antiatt. pp. 80. 12, 81. 1, 89. 23,91. 1, 98. 4; Phot Lecc. s. v. ^dypa.) He is mentioned by Photius among the poets quoted by Stobaeus (Bibl. Cod. 167, p. 374) ; but no references to him are found in our present copies of Stobaeus. It is probable also that the name of a poet Arjfji.6(TTparos9
whose ArHnoiroirjTos is quoted by Suidas (s. v. X°Va£) is an error for Ti/Aoa-rparos. (Meineke, Frag. Com. Graec. vol. i. pp. 499, 500, vol. iv. pp. 595, 596 ; Editio Minor, p. 1184.) [P. S.]
2. Son of Conon, was a native of the demus of Anaphlystus, and, according to a probable conjecture of Boeckh, belonged to the priestly family of the Eumolpidae (Corp. Inscr. 393 ; see Reh-dantz, Vit. Iph. Chabr. Tim. p. 45). For the statement of Athenaeus (xiii. p. 577, a), that his mother was a Thracian hetaera, there appear to be no good grounds. Inheriting a considerable fortune from his father, he seems in his early years to have indulged in the display of it, as we may gather from an allusion in the Plutus of Aristophanes (b. c. 388) ; and we may therefore well believe the assertion, that it was through his intercourse with Isocrates that his mind was directed to higher views (Lys. de Arist. Bon. p. 155 ; Arist. Pint. 180; Schol. ad loc.; Dem. c.Apkob. i. p. 815, c. ApJiob. de F. T. p. 862 ; Pseudo-Dem. Erot. p. 1415). In B. c. 378, Timotheus was made general with Chabrias and Callistratus, and it is possible that, while Chabrias was occupied in Boeotia, his colleagues commanded the fleet, and were engaged in bringing over Euboea and other islands to the Athenian confederacy (Xen. Hell. v. 4. § 34 ; Diod. xv. 29, 30 ; Pint, de Glor. Atli.%; Rehdantz, p. 57). In b. c. 375, Timotheus was sent with sixty ships to cruize round the Peloponnesus, in accordance with the suggestion of the Thebans, that the Spartans might thus be prevented from invading Boeotia. On his voyage he ravaged Laconia, and then proceeded to Corcyra, which he brought over to the Athenian alliance, behaving after his success with great moderation. This conduct, together with his conciliatory disposition and manners, contributed mainly to the prosperous issue of his further negotiations, and he succeeded in gaining the alliance of the Cephallenians and Acarna-nians, as well as that of Alcetas I., the king of Epirus. A Spartan fleet under Nicolochus was sent out against him, but he defeated it off Alyzia on the Acarnanian coast, and, being strengthened shortly after by a reinforcement from Corcyra, he entirely commanded the sea, though, having brought with him onl}T thirteen talents from home, he was greatly embarrassed for want of funds (Xen. Hell. v. 4. §§ 62—66 ; Dem. c. Arist. p. 686 ; Isocr. irepl 5A*>Tt5. § 116 ; Diod. xv. 36 ; Corn. Nep. Tim. 2 ; Ael. V. H. iii. 16 ; Pseudo-Arist. Oecon. ii. 23 ; Polyaen. iii. 10). In the following year peace was concluded between Athens and Sparta, and Timotheus was recalled. On his way, however, he stopped at Zacynthus, and forcibly restored some democratic exiles who had fled to him for refuge ; hereupon the oligarchical party in the island complained to Sparta, and the failure of her application to Athens for redress led to a renewal of the war (Xen. Hell. vi. 2. §§ 2, 3; Diod. xv. 45). In b. a 373, he was appointed to the command of sixty ships destined to act against mnasippusin Corcyra ; but he had no means of fully manning his squadron, and he was obliged therefore to cruize about the Aegean for the purpose of collecting men and money. It would appear to have been in the course of this cruize that he formed an intimacy with Amyntas, king of Macedonia, who made him a present of a quantity of timber for a house which