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On this page: Tisienus Gallus – Tisiphonus – Tisippus – Tissaphernes

J154

TISSAPHERNES.

thority than a conjecture of Gronovius. The more probable conjecture of Sillig, Amphicratis, has been rendered certain by the authority of the Bamberg MS. (See amphicrates, and Jan's Supplement to Sillig's Pliny.)

2. A sculptor of the same name, whom M. Raoul-Rochette considers to be undoubtedly a different person, has been made known by a marble found near Albano, with the inscription, TEI2IKPATH2 EHOIEI. (Visconti, Op. Var. vol. ii. p. 82; R. Rochette, Lettre a M. Scliorn^ p. 419, 2d ed.) Perhaps, however, the work may be only a marble copy of a bronze statue by the celebrated Tisi-crates. The orthography deserves notice: there are other examples of names beginning with the root TI, in both of the derived forms TIM and TI3, being spelt with the diphthong El. (See Pape, Worterbuch d. Griecli. Eigennamen.) [P.S.]

TISIENUS GALLUS. [gallus.]

TISrPHONE (TuTKpov-n). 1. The name of one of the Erinnyes (the avenger of murder, Orph. Arg. 966 ; comp. erinnyes).

2. A daughter of Alcmaeon and Manto. (Apol- lod. iii. 7. § 7.) [L« S.]

TISIPHONUS (Tiortyows), the eldest brother of Thebe, the wife'of Alexander of Pherae, in whose murder he took part with his sister and his two brothers, Lycophron and Peitholaus. After Alexander's death, according to Conon the gram­ marian, Thebe virtually governed, while Tisiphonus held the nominal authority. Xenophon simply mentions him as Alexander's successor, and Dio- dorus tells us that he and Lycophron held the ty­ ranny together, maintaining themselves by cruelty and violence with the aid of a mercenary force. We do not know how long the reign of Tisiphonus lasted ; but he appears to have been dead by b. c. 352, when Philip of Macedon marched into Thes- saly to support the Aleuadae against Lycophron. (Xen. Hell. vi. 4. § 37 ; Diod. xvi. 14; Con. Narr. 50 ; Plut. Pel. 35 ; Clint. F. H. vol. ii. App. ch. 15.) [E. E.]

TISIPPUS (TiViTrTros), an Aetolian, and a partisan of Rome. [baebius, No. 5 ; lycis- cus.] [E. E.]

TISSAPHERNES (Ti<r<ra</>e>^)? a famous Persian, who in b. c. 414 was commissioned by Dareius II. (Nothus) to quell the,- rebellion of Pissuthnes, satrap of Lower Asia, and to succeed him in his government. Tissaphernes and his col­leagues bribed the Greek mercenaries of Pissuthnes to desert his cause, and then entrapped him into a surrender by a promise, which Dareius broke, that his life should be spared. Amorges, however, the son of Pissuthnes, still continued in revolt, and Tissaphernes was commanded by Dareius to slay or capture him. The king also required from the new satrap the full tribute arising from his govern­ment, a considerable portion of which, viz. all which was due from the Greek towns under the protection of Athens, it had been hitherto impos­sible to collect. These combined motives led Tissaphernes, early in B. c. 412, to despatch an ambassador to Sparta, proposing an alliance, with the promise of payment for any troops that might be sent him, and supporting the prayer of Chios and Erythrae (states within his satrapy) that they might be aided by a Peloponnesian force in their intended revolt from Athens. Through the influence mainly of Alcibiades the Lacedaemonians decided in favour of the application of Tissaphernes, in

TISSAPHERNES.

preference to that of Pharnabazus, and shortly after the first treaty between the Persian king and Lacedaemon was concluded by Tissaphernes and Chalcideus, the characteristic cunning of the former being exhibited in one of its articles, which secured to Dareius whatever territory or cities had been at any time possessed by himself or his ancestors. For a short period after this we find the satrap helping his allies with apparent cordiality, and co-operating with them in particular against the Athenians at Miletus, while they in their turn assisted him in the reduction of lasus in Caria, and in the capture of Amorges, who was maintaining himself in the place. But disputes soon arose between the parties about the pay for the fleet, the amount of which Tissaphernes had diminished, and it was found necessary to make a new treaty, which specially provided that the king should support all the forces he might send for, so long as they continued in his territory, the article, however, which had virtually acknowledged the sovereignty of Persia over all the states she had ever possessed, being only slightly modified. Accordingly the eleven com­missioners, whom the Spartans sent out in the winter of the same year (412) as counsellors to Astyochus, objected strongly to both the treaties, and especially to the sweeping clause in question ; whereupon Tissaphernes, in real or pretended anger, broke off the conference and withdrew. When therefore Alcibiades deemed it expedient to abandon the Peloponnesian cause, and took refuge with the satrap, he found him fully prepared to listen to his suggestions, that the pay to the seamen should be no i only reduced, but irregularly supplied, and that it would conduce more to the king's interests to hold the balance between Athens and Sparta, and so to weaken both, than to give a complete triumph to the latter. In this advice, however, the subtle Athenian had over-reached himself; for the view which it opened was so acceptable to Tissaphernes, and suited so well his crafty temper, that Alcibiades could not persuade him to take any decided part in favour of Athens ; and therefore whenPEisANDER and his fellow-ambassadors came to negotiate for his alliance, their mission proved an utter failure. Tissaphernes now sought to connect himself again with the Peloponnesians, and a new treaty between the parties was concluded, which contained a more stringent stipulation on the subject of the pay, while the offensive article as to the king's right over the Asiatic cities was expressed in more vague and ambiguous terms. But Tissaphernes, with all his subscriptions to treaties, and all his promises of bringing up a Phoenician fleet to act against the Athenians, never intended to give any effectual assistance to his nominal allies, who at length (worn out and disgusted with his duplicity, and alarmed too at the apparent good understanding between him and Alcibiades, of which the latter made an ostentatious display) withdrew their whole armament from Miletus, and sailed north­ward to unite themselves with Pharnabazus (b. c. 411). Annoyed at this step of their's, and alarmed also at the part they had taken in the expulsion from Antandrus of the Persian garrison under Arsaces, his lieutenant, Tissaphernes left Aspendus, whither he had gone under pretence of bringing up the Phoenician fleet, and proceeded towards the Hellespont to remonstrate with the Peloponnesians, and, if possible, to conciliate them. On his way he stopped at Ephesus, and sacrificed there to the

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