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TULLIUS.

There can be little doubt that the number in Dionysius is the correct one. According to Livy's number cases might have arisen in which it was impossible to obtain a majority, as ninety-seven might have voted for a measure and ninety-seven against it. Moreover, Cicero (de Rep. ii. 22) de­scribes ninety-six as the minority. The other discrepancies between Livy and Dionysius are of no great importance, and need not be discussed further in this place.

The Assembly of the Centuries, or Comitia Cen-turiata^ was made by Servius, as we have already remarked, the sovereign assembly of the nation, and it accordingly stept into the place formerly occupied by the Comitia Curiata. Servius trans­ferred to it from the latter assembly the right of electing kings and the higher magistrates, of enacting and repealing laws, and of deciding upon war, and jurisdiction in cases of appeal from the sentence of a judge. He did not, however, abolish the Comitia Curiata, but on the contrary he allowed them very great power and influence in the state. He not only permitted them to retain the exercise of such rights as affected their own corporations, but he enacted that no vote of the Comitia Centuriata should be valid till it had received the sanction of the Comitia Curiata. This sanction of the Curiae is often expressed by the words pairum auctoritas or patres auctores facti, in which phrase patres mean the patricii. In course of time the sanction of the Curiae was abolished, or at least became a mere matter of form; but the successive steps by which this was accomplished do not belong to the present inquiry, and are re­lated elsewhere. (Diet, of Antiq. s. vv. Auctor9 Comitia, p. 333, a, Plebs, 2d ed.)

Although Servius gave the plebeians political rights and recognised them as the second order of the Roman people, it must not be supposed that he placed them on a footing of equality with the pa­tricians. From the time of Servius they were cives, they had the jus civitatis, but not in its full extent. The jus civitatis included both the jus publicum and the jus privatum ; but of each of these rights they possessed only a portion. Of the jus publicum Servius gave to them only the jus suffragii, or right of voting in the comitia centuriata, but not the jus honorum, or eligibility to the public offices of the state. Of the jus privatum Servius conferred upon them only the commercium9 by virtue of which they could become owners of land and could ap­pear before the courts without the mediation of a

-patronus, but he did not grant to them the connu-bium, or right of marriage with the patricians. Moreover, they had no claim to the use of the public land, the possessio of which continued to be confined to the patricians, although the conquered lands were won by the blood of the second order as well as of the first ; but, as some compensation for this injustice, Servius is said to have given to the poor plebeians small portions of the public land in full ownership. (Dionys. iv. 9,10,13 ; Liv. i. 46 ; Zonar. vii. 9.)

The laws of Servius Tullius are said to have been committed to writing, and were known under the name of the Commentarii Servii Tullii. Diony­sius says (iv. 13) that he regulated the com-mercium between the two orders by about fifty laws; but the commentaries of Servius Tullius,

•which are cited by later writers, such as Verrius Flaccus, can only have contained the substance of

TULLUS.

the laws ascribed to him; since the original laws, if they were ever committed to writing, must long since have perished. (Niebuhr, Hist, of Rome, vol. i. p. 249.)

The principal modern writers who have treated of the Servian constitution are: Niebuhr, Hist, of Rome, vol. i. p. 398, foil.; Gottling, GeschicJde der Romischen Staatsverfassung, p. 230, foil.; Gerlach, Die Verfassung d. Servius in ikrer Entwickelung, Basel, 1837 ; Huschke, Die Verfassung d. Kon. Serv. Tutt., Heidelberg, 1838; Peter, Epoclien d. Verfassungsgesch. der Romisch. Republ., Leigzig, 1841; Walter, Gesch. d. Romisch. Rechts, p. 31, foil., 2nd ed.; Becker, Handbuctl d. Romisch. Alter-thumer, vol. ii. pt. \. p. 164, foil. TU'LLIUS TIRO. [tiro.] TU'LLIUS VALENTFNUS. [valentinus.] TULLUS, A'TTIUS. [tullius, attjus.] TULLUS, CALVFSIUS. 1. C., consul with A. Cornelius Palma in a. d. 109 (Fasti). 2. P., consul suffectus in A. d. 110. TULLUS, CLOE'LIUS or CLUFLIUS. [cloelius tullus.]

TULLUS HOSTFLIUS. [Hos-riLius.] TULLUS, M. MAECFLIUS, a triumvir of the mint under Augustus, known only from coins, a specimen of which is annexed. On the obverse is the head of Augustus with caesar avgvst. pont. max. tribvnic. pot., and on the reverse

M. MAECILIVS TVLLVS 1IIVIR A. A. A. P. F.

(Eckhel, vol. v. p. 240.)

COIN OF M. MAECILIUS TULLUS.

TULLUS, VOLCA'TIUS. 1. L. volcatius tullus, consul b. c. 66 with M'. Aemilius Lepi-dus. He is mentioned by Cicero in his oration for Plancius (c. 21) as one of those distinguished men who had failed when a candidate for the aedile-ship, but who afterwards obtained the highest honours of the state. Volcatius did not take a prominent part in public affairs, and appears to have been a man of moderate opinions, and fond of quiet. He approved of Cicero's proceedings in his consulship, and spoke in the debate in the senate on the punishment of the Catilinarian conspirators. In the discussion in b. c. 56, respecting the resto­ration of Ptolemy Auletes to his kingdom, he was in favour of intrusting this important commission to Pompey, who had lately returned from the East. In b. c. 54 he was one of the consulars who supported M. Scaurus, when he was brought to trial in this year. On the breaking out of the civil war, in b. c. 49, he resolved to take no part in the struggle, but remained quietly in Italy all the time. He is spoken of by Cicero in b. c. 46 as an enemy of M. Marcellus, when the latter was pardoned by Caesar. (Cic. in Cat. i. 6, ad Att. xii. 21, Philipp. ii. 5, ad Fam. i. 1, 2, 4, ad Q. Fr. ii.

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