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iv. § 26 ; Bahr, GeseldcUe der Rom. Literat. Suppl. B. §100.) [W. R.]
TYDEUS (TvSevs), a son of Oeneus and Peri-boea (Gorge or Althaea), was the husband of Dei'pyle, by whom he became the father of Dio-medes; he was king of Calydon, and one of the princes who joined Polyneices in the expedition against Thebes. (Apollod. i. 8. § 5 ; Horn. II. ii. 406, xiv. 115, &c.)
Tydeus was obliged to flee from his country in consequence of some murder which he had committed, but which is differently described by the different authors, some saying that he killed his father's brother, Melas, Lycopeus, or Alcathous; others that he slew Thoas or Aphareus, his mother's brother ; others that he slew his brother Olenias, and others again that he killed the sons of Melas, who had revolted against Oeneus (Schol. ad Stat. Theb. i. 280, 402). He fled to Adrastus at Argos, who purified him from the murder, and gave him his daughter De'ipyle in marriage. With Adrastus he then went against Thebes, where he was wounded by Melanippus, who, however, was slain by him. (Apollod. I. c.; Eustath. ad Horn. pp. 288, 971.) When Tydeus lay on the ground wounded, Athena appeared to him with a remedy which she had received from Zeus, and which was to make him immortal. This, however, was prevented by a stratagem of Amphi-araus, who hated Tydeus, for he cut off the head of Melanippus and brought it to Tydeus, who cut it in two and ate the brain, or devoured some of the flesh. (Schol. ad Find. Nem. x. 12 ; comp. Eustath. ad Horn. p. 1273.) Athena seeing this, shuddered, and did not apply the remedy which she had brought. (Apollod. iii. 6. § 8.) Tydeus then died, and was buried by Macon. (Paus. ix. 18. § 2 ; comp. adrastus ; amphiaraus.) [L. S.]
TYDEUS (TuSefo). 1. A Chian, son of Ion, appears to have been a leader of the democratic party in his native island, and was one of those who were put to death in b. c. 412, by Pedaritus the Lacedaemonian, for attachment to the Athenian cause. It is possible that his father was no other than Ion, the tragic poet. (Time. viii. 38.) [!on, No. 1 ; pedaritus.]
2. An Athenian, was one of the three additional generals who were appointed in b. c. 405 to share the command of the fleet with Conon, Philocles, and Adeimantus. Tydeus and Menander, one of his colleagues, are particularly mentioned by Xe- nophon as contemptuously rejecting the advice of Alcibiades before the battle of Aegos-potami in the same year ; and we find in Pausanias that he and Adeimantus were suspected by their countrymen of having been bribed by Lysander. He was put to death by the Spartans, as we may conclude, after the battle, together with the other Athenian prisoners. (Xen. Hell. ii. 1. §§ 16, 26 ; Paus. x. 9.) [adeimantus.] [E. E.]
TYMNES (Tv/j,vr)s}, an epigrammatic poet, whose epigrams were included in the Garland of Meleager, but respecting whose exact date we have no further evidence; for the grounds on which Reiske supposes that he was a Cretan, and that he was contemporary with Meleager, are very slight. There are seven of his epigrams in the Greek Anthology. (Brunck, Anal. vol. i. p. 505; Jacobs, Anihol. Graec. vol. i. p. 256, vol. xiii. p. 963 j Fabric. BibL Graec. vol. iv, pp. 498,
499.) Tymnes occurs, as a Carian name, in Hero dotus (v. 37, vii. 98). [P. S.]
TYMPANUS, L. POSTU'MIUS, quaestor B. c. 194, slain in battle by the Boii. (Liv. xxxiv. 47•)
TYNDAREUS (TvMpews), the son of Peri- eres and Gorgophone, and a brother of Aphareus, Leucippus, Icarius, and Arete (Apollod. i. 9. § 5) or according to others (Apollod. iii. 10. §4), a son of Oebalus, by the nymph Bateia or by Gorgophone. (Paus. iii. 1. § 4.) Tyndareus, with Icarion, being expelled by his step-brother Hippocoon and his sons, he fled to Thestins in Aetolia, and assisted him in his wars against his neighbours. Others (Paus. L c.) state that Icarion assisted Hippocoon, and, according to a Laconian tradition, Tyndareus went to Pellana in Laconia, and according to a Messenian tradition, he went to Aphareus in Mes- senia. (Paus. iii. 1. § 4, 21. § 2.) In Aetolia he married Leda, the daughter of Thestius (Apollod. iii. 10. § 5 ; Eurip. Iph. Aul. 49), and afterwards he was restored to his kingdom of Sparta by He racles. (Apollod. ii. 7- § 3, iii. 10. § 5 ; Pans. ii. 18. § 6 ; Diod. iv. 33.) 13y Leda, Tyndareus became the father of Timandra, Clytaemnestra and Philonoe. (Apollod. iii. 10. § 6 ; Horn. Od. xxiv. 199.) One night Leda was embraced both by Zeus and Tyndareus, and the result of this was the birth of Polydeuces and Helena, the children of Zeus, and of Castor and Clytaemnestra, the children of Tyndareus. (Hygin. Fab. 77 ; comp. dioscuri ; helena ; clytaemnestra.) When Tyndareus saw that his beautiful daughter Helena was beleaguered by suitors, he began to be afraid, lest if one should be successful, the others should create disturbances, and, on the advice of Odysseus, he put them all to their oath, to protect the suitor that should be preferred by Helena, against any wrong that might be done to him. (Paus. iii. 20. § 9.) To reward Odysseus for this good advice, Tyndareus himself begged Icarius to give to Odys seus his daughter Penelope. (Apollod. iii. 10. § 9.) Tyndareus was believed to have built the temple of Athena Chalcioecus at Sparta. (Paus. iii. 17. § 3.) When Castor and Polydeuces had been re ceived among the immortals, Tyndareus invited Menelaus to come to Sparta, and surrendered his kingdom to him. (Apollod. iii. 11. §2.) His tomb was shown at Sparta as late as the time of Pausanias (iii. 17. § 4). [L. S.]
TYNDARION (TwSapiW), a tyrant of Tau- romenium in Sicily, who invited Pyrrhus over from Italy in b. c. 278. Pyrrhus directed his course first to Tauromenium, and received reinforcements from Tyndarion. (Diod. Eel. viii. p. 495 ; comp. Pint. Pyrrh. 23 ; Droysen, 'Gescliiclite des Hellenismus, vol. ii. p. 150.) [E. E.]
TYPHON or TYPHOEUS (Tt^aW, Tm/Koefo, Tu^cfo), a monster of the primitive world, is described sometimes as a destructive hurricane, and sometimes as a fire-breathing giant. According to Homer (II. ii. 782 ; comp. Strab. xiii. p. 929) he was concealed in the country of the Arimi * in the earth, which was lashed by Zeus with flashes of lightning.
In Hesiod Typhaon and Typhoeus are two distinct beings. Typhaon there is a son of Typhoeus
* EiV 'Api/xots, of which the Latin poets have made Inarime (Virg. Aen. ix. 716 ; Ov. Met, xiv. 89).