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pears to have contemplated a series of such pro­ductions, of which this was only the "AA^a. Va­rious appendices or scholia to it, and a collection of 107 prose epistles are yet unpublished. The first edition of this work was published by Gerbelius in 1546. The best edition is that of Kiessling (Lips. 1826), though much still requires correction and supplementation (see Struve, Ueber den politischen Vers der Mittelgriechen, 1828, and in the Krit. Bibliotli. 1827, 3. p. 241, &c.; comp. Diibner, in the Rliein. Mus. iv. 1). Some insignificant scholia on the Chiliades by Tzetzes are published in Cra-mer's Anecdola. Oxon. (iii. 350, &c.). 3. An iambic poem on the education of children is printed in the editions of the Chiliades. 4. A series of mythical and epic narratives, in 777 political lines, entitled freoyovia, was discovered by Immanuel Bek-ker, and published in the Abltandlungen der Preus-sischen Akademie, 1840. 5. A versified treatise Trept /nerpGw, and another 7T€pl 8ia(f>opas rroirjrcSv (Cramer, A need. Oxon. iv. 302, &c. ; Welcker, lUiein. Mus. iv. 393, &c.; Meineke, Com. Gr. ii. p. 1245—1254, v. p. 3). 6. An equally worthless poem or collection of verses, irepl TIivdapiKuv fAtrpuiv (Cramer, Anecd. Paris, i. 59—162). 7. Some versified scholia on Hermogones (Cramer, Anecd. Oxon. iv. p. 1—148). 8. Lines irepl pir)/j.d-twv avdviroTCLKTcw (Bekker, Anecd. vol. iii. p. 1088—1090). 9. An etfyriffis on the Iliad of Homer; published by G. Hermann, together with the work of Draco of Stratonicea, en metres (Leip­zig, 1812). 10. Scholia on Hesiod, printed in the editions of Hesiod by Trincavelli (Venice, 1537), and Heinsius (Leyden, 1603).

Of the unpublished works of Joannes Tzetzes, the most considerable is: 1. The Homeric Alle­gories (viroOecns rov 'O^pov aAAr^opTjfleura, or /xerac^pacrts 'Q/xTjpou), consisting of some 6000 po­litical lines. Tzetzes mentions this work in the Chiliades (v. 7, 776, ix. 282, &c.). Besides this there are, 2. Scholia on the Halieutica of Oppian. 3. Ex'positio Isagoges, seu Libri de V. Vocibus Por-phyrii, in political verses. 4. An epitome of the rhetoric of Hermogenes, in political verses. 5. Ao-yiar/LiaJv fii§\os (comp. Cliil. xi. 361). -6. A col­lection of 107 letters (see above). 7. A treatise on the Canon of Ptolemy. 8. Various short pieces, epigrams, &c. For an account of the manuscripts in which these are found the reader is referred to Fabricius, Bill. Gr. vol. xi. p. 215, &c., comp. i. 403, &c. vi. 352. (Scholl, Geschichte der GriecJi. Litteratur, vol. iii. p. 84, &c. ; Bernhardy, Grun-driss der Griecliisclien Litteratur, vol. ii. p. 1070.)

2. isaac ('lo-ua/aos T^er^s), brother of the preceding, is named in the manuscripts as the author of the commentary on the Cassandra of Ly-cophron. It appears however from passages in his works, that Joannes Tzetzes claimed it as his pro­duction (Chil. ix. hist. 298 ; comp. Schol. ad Ly~ cophr. 83). The same claim is made in a letter of Joannes Tzetzes to the Protonotarius Basilius Achridenus, printed in Fabricius, vol. iii. p. 753, and in Klister's Suidas, s. v. A.vKotypvi'. In Chil. viii. hist. 204, Joannes says that some other gram­marian attempted to set up a claim to be the author of the commentary, but was speedily detected. The last editor, J. C. Muller, is of opinion that Isaac Tzetzes first published a commentary on Ly-cophron, and that Joannes Tzetzes subsequently published an enlarged and improved edition of it. Of this he finds traces in the manuscripts, some of

vol. in.



which contain apparently the older edition of Isaac, others the improved edition of Joannes, the ad­ditions exhibiting not only the learning, but the arrogant self~complacenc}r of Joannes. The latter moreover does tell us that his brother Isaac wrote a commentary on Lycophron (Schol. ad Hesiod. Proleg. Kal t$ e/A<p Se d§eA<£<£ *KTr€ir6vj]ra.i \iav Ka\\iffra Kal (j)i\ori/n6rara Trepi rovrov eV rfj rov AvKofypovos e|^7^<rei; comp. Chil. viii. 486). The commentary is printed in several of the editions of Lycophron, as in that printed at Basel, 1546 ; in those of Canter (Basel, 1566), Stephanus (1601), Potter (Oxon. 1697), Owen (Oxon. 1702), Se-bastiani (Rome, 1803). The best edition of the commentary, without the text of Lycophron, is that by Muller (Leipzig, 1811). [C. P. M.J

U. V.

VABALATHUS. Vopiscus, in his life of An--relian (c. 38), asserts that Zenobia assumed the purple as regent for her son Balbatus (al. leg. Babalatus), and not in the name of Herennianus and Timolaus, which is the statement of Trebellius Pollio (Trig. Tyrann. xxix.). It is certain that we find no trace of either Herennianus or Timolaus on medals, while a few are extant, both Greek and Roman, which exhibit imp. c. vabalathus aug. or ATT.OTABAAAA0OC.CEB. with the effigy and titles of Aurelian on the reverse. But several of these bear words or characters, in addi­tion to those given above, which have proved a source of much embarrassment. Thus, on one we find vabalathus. VCR1MDR., abbreviations to which no archaeologist has been able to supply a satisfactory interpretation ; on others,

ATT.CPniAC.OTABAAAA0OC.A®HNOT. or, A.CPIAC.OTABAAAA0OC.A0HNT. or, ATT.K.OTABAAAA0OC.A0HNO.CEB, in which A0HNOT, &c., is supposed to stand for 'AflrjvoSwpou vios, while Sroias or Srias may be a sort of praenomen. Finally, there is a rare coin displaying on the obverse two laurelled heads, one of a bearded man, the other of a smooth-faced boy, with the legend ATPHAIANOC.A0HNOAnPOC. It would be tedious and unprofitable to enumerate the various theories proposed to solve the problems suggested by these pieces. The only conclusion we can safely form is, that Sroias, Vabalatkus, and Athcnodorus were princes of Palmyra, connected with Odenathus and Zenobia, but in what relation they stood to them and to each other, has never been determined. [ W. R.j


VACCA, FLAMFNIUS, a Roman sculptor, of whom all that is known is contained in the following inscription: d. o. m. flaminio vaccae


Diar. Ital. p. 105 ; Welcker, Rlieiii. Mus. 1848. vol. vi. p. 383.) [P. S.]

4 H

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