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rather than den}' his religion. The history of his conversion is detailed at length, upon the authority of Simpliciamis, bishop of Milan, in the Confessions of St. Augustine, who glories not a little in so distinguished a proselyte. The following works ascribed to this author are still extant.

I. Commentarius s. Eccpositio in Ciceronis libros de Inventione. First printed at Milan by Zarotus fol. 1474, again by Aldus, 8vo. Venet. 1522, along with the Annotations of Asconius upon the Ora­tions of Cicero; and again by R. Stephens, 4to. Par. 1537. It will be found in the Antiqui Rhe-tores Latini of Pithou, 4to. Par. 1599, pp. 79— 239 ; and in the same collection as re-edited by Caperonnier, 4to. Argentor. 1756, pp. 102—255. It is likewise included in the fifth volume of Orelli's edition of Cicero.

II. Ars Grammatica de Orthographia et Ratione Metrorum, a complete and voluminous treatise upon metres in four books, first printed by Ulric. Mor-hard in the collection of Latin grammarians, pub­lished under the inspection bf Jo. Camerarius, 4to. Tubing. 1537. It will be found in the Gram-maticae Latinae Auctores Antiqui of Putschius, 4to. Hanov. 1605, pp. 2450—2622. The translations from Plato mentioned by St. Augustine (Confess. viii.,2) have perished.

III. De Trinitate contraArium LibrilV., finished it would appear about a. d. 365. IV. De Ojuoovcnw recipiendo, an abridgment of the foregoing. V. Hymni tres de Trinitate. The three last mentioned pieces were first printed at Basle, fol. 1528, in the Anti-dotum contra omnes Haereses, and will be found also m the Bibliotheca Patrum Max. fol. Lugdun. 1677, vol. iv. p. 253 and p. 294 ; and in the Bibliotheca Patrum of Galland, vol. viii. fol. Venet. 1772.

VI. De Generatione Verbi Divini s. Confutato-rimn Candidi Ariani ad eumdem. First printed at Basle, fol. 1528 in the Conceptiones in Genesim et Exodum of Ziegler along with a fragment of the tract by Candidus [candidus] De Generatione Divina, to which it is a reply. Both will be found in the Orthodoxographa of Heroldus, fol. Bas. 1555, p. 461, in the Haeresiologia of Heroldus, fol. Bas. 1556, p. 186, in the Analecta Vetera of Mabillon, fol. Par. 1685, vol. iv. p. 155 ; and in the Biblio­theca Patrum of Galland, vol. viii. as above.

VII. Ad Justinum Manichaeum contra duo Prin-vipia Manichaeorum et de vera Carne Christi. VIII. De Verbis Scripturae " Factum est Vespere et Mane Dies Unus." The two last mentioned pieces were first published by Sirmond and inserted in his Opera Dogmatica Vetera, 8vo. Par. 1630. They will be found also in his collected works, fol. Par. ] 696, vol. i. ; and in the Bibliotheca Patrum of Galland, vol. viii. The titles were fabricated by the editor, none having been found in his Codex.

IX. Commentarius in Epistolam Pauli ad Gala-tas, in two books. X. Commentarius in Epistolam Pauli ad Philippenses, in one book. XI. Com­mentarius in Epistolam Pauli ad Ephesios, in two books. XII. De Physicis, composed for the pur­pose of defending religion against those philosophers who attacked the Mosaic account of the Creation. The four last mentioned pieces have only recently been brought to light. St. Jerome twice refers to the commentaries of Victorinus upon the epistles of Paul; and although we learn from Sirmond (Opera, vol. i. p. 345), that the MS. from which he de­rived the Opuscula which we have marked VII. VIII. contained also commentaries upon the epistles



of Paul by the same author, yet, for some reason not known, he did not publish the latter which were altogether lost sight of, until ro less than three MSS. of them were discovered in the library of the Vatican by Angelo Mai, by whom they were included in the third volume of the Scriptorum Veterum Nova Collectio ex Vaticanis codicibus edita, 4to. Rom. 1828. Whether Victorinus wrote commentaries upon all the epistles of Paul is left in doubt by the words of St. Jerome, and cannot now be determined. The De Physicis is found in all the three Vatican MSS. subjoined to the com­mentary on the Ephesians ; and although not actually inscribed with the name of Victorinus seems to be alluded to by himself (Ad Ephes. lib. ii. p. 126) ; and bears strong external evidence of his manner.

In addition to all these a descriptive epic in seven books, entitled De Fratribus VII. Maccabaeis inter-fectis ab Antiocho Epiphane, has been ascribed sometimes to Victorinus of Pettaw, sometimes to Victorinus Afer, and sometimes to Hilarius of Aries. If it belongs to any one of these three personages, the last is probably the rightful owner.

The fame enjoyed by Victorinus as a public instructor does not gain any accession from his theological works. In style, weak, cramped, and involved, in phraseology often barbarous, sustained by no depth of learning and relieved by no bril­liancy of illustration, they merit the severe criticism of St. Jerome, who pronounces their author to be both obscure and ignorant. The exposition of the essay De Inventione is more difficult to comprehend than the text which it professes to explain, the hymns are destitute of all poetical spirit, and set the laws of prosody and metre so completely at defiance that they could scarcely have proceeded from the compiler of the grammatical treatise which displays much research and contains many valuable observations. (Hieronym. de Viris 111. 101; Prooem. in Epit. ad Galat., Chronic, ad A.D. 360, Adv. Rufin. vol. iv. p. 367, ed. Bened. ; Augustin. Con­fess, viii. 2, 4, 5 ; Trithem. 71 ; Honor, i. 102 ; Lardner, Credibility of Gospel History, c. xciv.; Gal­land, Biblioth. Patrum, vol. viii., Pro.leg. c. iv. p. vii. ; Schoenemann, Bibl. Patrum Lat. vol. i. c. 4. §13.)

3. maximus victorinus. We possess three short tracts—1. De Re Grammatica; 2. De Car­ mine Heroico; 3. De Ratione Metrorum, all ap­ parently the work of the same author and usually ascribed in MSS. to a Maximus Victorinus ; but whether we ought to consider him the same with the rhetorician who flourished under Constantius or as an independent personage it is impossible to decide. They were first printed in the collection of ancient grammarians published by Adamus Petri, 8vo. Bas. 1527, where the two former are assigned to Marius Victorinus Afer and the third to Maximus Victorinus; they will be found also in the Gram- maticae Latinae Auctores Antiqui of Putschius, 4to. Hannov. 1605, pp. 1938—1974 ; and under a greatly improved form in the Corpus Grammaticorum Latinorum Veterum of Lindemann, vol. i. 4to. Lips. 1831, pp. 267—304. Both Putschius and Linde­ mann prefix the name of Maximus Victorinus to the whole three. [ W. R.]

Q. VICTO'RIUS, primi pili centurio, distin­guished himself by his bravery, b.c. 194. (Liv

XXXIV t: O )


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