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was also ascribed to Xanthus (Clem. Alex, Slrom. iii. p. 185 ; Diog. Laert. Praef. 2) ; but the Life of Einpedocles, which is mentioned by Diogenes Laertius (viii. 63) as the work of Xanthus, should probably be referred to another writer of the same name. (Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. ii. p. 159; Vos- sius, de Hist. Graec. pp. 32—34, ed. Westermann ; Creuzer, Historicorum Graec. Antiquiss. Fragmenfa, Heidelb. 1806, 8vo.; C. Muller, Fragments His- toricorum Graecorum, pp. xx—xxiii., 36—44 ; K. O. Muller, Gesch. d. Griech. Lit. vol. i. p. 478, p. 264, Engl. trans.) [P. S.]
XENAEUS (EewTos), the architect who super intended the building of the walls of Antioch under Seleucus I. (Malal. Chron. p. 200, ed. Bonn.; Muller, Dissertationes Antiochenae; Archaol. d. JTMws*,§149, n. 4). [P. S.]
XENAGORAS (t&svay6pas\ a Greek historian quoted by Dionysius of Haliearnassus (i. 72), from whom we learn that Xenagoras related that Ulysses and Circe had three sons, Romus, Antias, and Ardeas, who founded the three cities which were called by their names. Macrobius also (v. 19) refers to the third book of the history of Xenagoras. If he was the same person as the Xenagoras, the father of the historian Nymphis, he must have lived in the early part of the second century b. c. [nymphis.] Xenagoras wrote a work entitled Xptvoi (Schol. ad Apoll. Rliod. iv. 262, 264 ; Harpocrat. s. v. KpauaAAiScu) and another on is-
lands, Ilepl vr\ff(av (Etymol. s. v.
ad Lycophr. 447 ; Harpocrat. s. v. Xvrpoi ; Steph. Byz. s. v. Xurpoi). (Comp. Vossius, de Hist. Graec. p. 508, ed. Westermann ; Clinton, jPas^. Hell. vol. iii. p. 566.)
XENARCHUS (SeVapxos), an Achaean, who was sent to Rome as an ambassador by the Achaeans, for the purpose of renewing their alli ance with the Romans, and of superintending the progress of the negotiations with reference to the Lacedaemonians. He was surprised into affixing his signature to the agreement drawn up on the latter subject at the suggestion of Flamininus. (Polyb. xxiv. 4.) He found means to enter into friendly relations with Perseus ; and it was when he was general of the Achaeans (b. c. 174), that Perseus got his letter about the runaway slaves of the Achaeans laid before the assembly. (Liv. xli. 28.) [C. P. M.l " XENARCHUS (EeWpxos), literary. 1. A son of Sophron, and, like his father, a celebrated writer of mimes. He flourished during the Rhegian War (b. c. 399 — 389), at the court of Dionysius, who is said to have employed him to ridicule the Rhegians, as cowards, in his poems. (Phot, and Suid. s. v. 'Pyyivovs.} His mimes are mentioned, with those of Sophron, by Aristotle (Poet. 2). They were in the Doric dialect. (Clinton, F. H. vol.ii. s.a. 393 ; sophron.)
*2. An Athenian comic poet of the Middle Comedy, who was contemporary with Timocles, and lived as late as the time of Alexander the Great. The following titles of his plays have been preserved, with some considerable fragments :
(Suid. s. v. ; Ath. passim.) Fabricius and others have confounded him with the mimographer, who lived sixty or seventy years earlier, and wrote in a different dialect. (Fabric. Bibl.Graec. vol. ii. p. 505; Clinton, F. H. vol. ii. Introtf. p. xlv. ; Meineke, Frag. Com.
Graec. vol. i. p. 434, vol. iii. pp. 614—625, Editio Minor, pp. 811—815.)
3. Of Seleuceia in Cilieia, a Peripatetic philosopher and grammarian, in the time of Strabo, who heard him. Xenarchus left home early, and devoted himself to the profession of teaching, first at Alexandria, afterwards at Athens, and last at Rome, where he enjoyed the friendship of Areius, and afterwards of Augustus; and he was still living, in old age and honour, when Strabo wrote. (Strab. xiv. p. 670.) He is also mentioned by Simplicius (de CaelO) 1), and by Alexander Aphrodisiensis (de Anim. p. 154 ; Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. iii. p. 510; Clinton, F. II. vol. iii. p. 554). [P. S.J
XENARES (EeyapTjs), a Spartan, was one of the ephors who came into office in b. c. 421. Be ing opposed to the truce which had been made with Athens for fifty years, he and his colleague Cleobulus intrigued with the Boeotians and Co rinthians to reconstruct the Lacedaemonian league, and to strengthen it by the addition of Argos. If this could have been effected, Sparta would have had nothing to fear from the renewal of war with Athens: but the scheme failed in consequence of the secrecy necessary in its preliminary steps. (Thuc. v. 36—38.) Xenares, a Lacedaemonian, son of Cnidis, is mentioned as commander of the colony at the Trachinian Heracleia in b. c. 420, when the colonists were assailed by the forces of several neighbouring tribes, and were defeated with great loss, Xenares himself being among the slain. He appears to have been a differemt person from the ephor of the preceding year. (Thuc. v. 51.) [E.E.]
XENIA (Eej/ia), and the masculine Xenios are epithets of Athena and Zeus, describing them as presiding over the laws of hospitality, and pro tecting strangers. (Lat. Hospitalis; Pans. iii. 11, in fin.; Horn. Od. xiv. 389 ; Cic. ad Q. Frat. ii. 12.) [L. S.]
XENIADES (Eejxa'Srjs). 1. A Greek philosopher, a native of Corinth. The age when he flourished is uncertain. The little that we know of him is derived from Sextus Empiricus, who represents him as holding the most ultra sceptical opinions, and maintaining that all notions are false, and that there is absolutely nothing true in the universe (Adv. Math. vii. 388, 399). What Soxtus knew of him seems to have been derived from Democritus (ib. vii. 53). He more than once couples him with Xenophanes (Pyrrli. Hyp. ii. 18, adv. Math. vii. 48). Perhaps his representations may be as exaggerated in the one case as in the other (comp. xenophanes).
2. A Corinthian, who became the purchaser of Diogenes the Cynic, when he was taken by pirates and sold as a slave (see Vol. I. p. 1021; Diog. Laert. vi. 74). [C. P. M.]
XENIAS (Eej/tas). 1. A Parrhasian, was a commander of mercenaries in the service of Cyrus the younger, whom he accompanied, with a body of 300 men, to court, when he was summoned thither by his father, Dareius Nothus, in b. c. 405. After the return of Cyrus to western Asia, we find Xenias commanding for him the garrisons in the several Ionian states, and with the greater portion of these troops, viz. 4000 hoplites, he joined the prince in his expedition against Artaxerxes, leaving behind only a sufficient number of men to guard the citadels. At Tarsus a large body of his soldiers and of those of Pasion the Mcgarian