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XERXES (Eep£?]s), a son of Mithridates, who fell into the hands of Pompey in consequence of the insurrection of the town of Phanagoria, where he with several of his brothers had been placed for security, B. c. 64. He afterwards adorned Pompey's triumph at Rome. (Appian, Miihr. 108,117.)
XIPHILFNUS, GEO'RGIUS (T^pyios 6 Ei<£iA«/os), patriarch of Constantinople, A. d. 1193
—1199. A few constitutions of his are mentioned, the most important of which, De Juribus Territo-riorwn, is published by Leunclavius in his Jus Graeco-Romanum, vol. i. p. 283. (Fabric. BibL Graec. vol. xii. pp. 41, 42.)
XIPHILINUS, JOANNES ('IwaV^s 6 Et^u-Ao/os). 1. Patriarch of Constantinople, a. d. 1066
—1075, was of a noble family of Trapezus (Tre-bizond). He published a few constitutions on ecclesiastical matters, which are printed by Leunclavius in his Jus Graeco-Romanum, and also an Oration on the Adoration of the Cross, which is printed in Gretser's work on the Cross, Ingolstadt, 1616, There are also some orations of this Xiphilinus published by Ch. Fr. Matthaei under the title of " Xiphilini, Joannis, et Basilii Magni aliquot Ora-tiones," Mosquae, 1775 ; but the writer is unable to state what these orations are, as he has not seen the book. This Xiphilinus has been frequently confounded with his nephew. (Cave, Hist. Lit. ad ann. 1066.)
2. Of Trapezus, the nephew of the preceding, was a monk at Constantinople, and made an abridgement of Dion Cassius from the thirty-sixth to the eightieth book at the command of the emperor Michael VII. Ducas, who reigned from a. d. 1071 to 1078. Xiphilinus did not preserve the original arrangement of Dion Cassius, who divided his work into books, but he distributed it into sections (T/x^aTa), each of which contained the life of an emperor. He omitted the names of the consuls, which Dion Cassius always inserted, and sometimes he took the liberty to alter and amend the original. The work is executed with the usual carelessness which characterizes most epitomes, and is only of value as preserving the main facts of the original, the greater part of which is lost. As an example of the carelessness of Xiphilinus, we may mention a passage (Ixxi. 32) in which he refers the reader to a previous statement, which is, however, omitted in the Epitome. That he omitted many statements of considerable importance, and which certainly ought to have been preserved even in an abridgment, is evident from Zonaras, who has preserved many passages of Dion Cassius which are omitted by Xiphilinus. [zonaras.] For editions and further particulars see dion cassius.
XUTHUS (Eoutfos), a son of Hellen by the nymph Orseis, and a brother of Dorus and Aeolus. He was king of Peloponnesus, and the husband of Creusa, the daughter of Erechtheus, by whom he became the father of Achaeus and Ion (Eurip. Ion. 63, &c.; Apollod. i. 7. § 3). Others state that after the death of his father Hellen, Xuthus was expelled from Thessaly by his brothers, and went to Athens, where he married the daughter of Erechtheus. After the death of Erechtheus, Xuthus being chosen arbitrator, adjudged the kingdom
to his eldest brother-in-law, Cecrops, in conse quence of which he was expelled by the other sons of Erechtheus, and settled at Aegialos in Pelopon nesus. (Paus. vii. 1. § 2 ; comp. Herod, vii. 94.) [L. S.J
^ ZACHARIAS (Zaxa/w'as). 1. An ecclesiastical writer, commonly known by the name of zacharias rhetor. He was bishop of Meli-tene, and was the author of an ecclesiastical history embracing the period from a. d. 450 to a. d. 491. In the judgment of the orthodox Evagrius this work was written with a bias in favour of the Nestorians. (Evagrius, ii. 2, iii. 5, 6, 7, 18 ; comp. Nicephorus, xvi. 5, 6, 9, &c.) A Syriac translation, which bears no author's name, is claimed as the translation of the work of Zacharias by Asse-mann (Bibl. Orient, vol. ii. p. 53, &c. ; comp. Le Quien, Oriens Christ, i. p. 442).
2. The preceding should no doubt be distinguished from Zacharias surnamed Scholasticus. The latter studied philosophy at Alexandria, and jurisprudence at Berytus. After some time he was made bishop of Mytilene in Lesbos, and while in this office was present at the council held at Constantinople in a. d. 536, in the Acta of which he is several times mentioned. There is still extant a work by Zacharias, entitled 3A/n/uu>jsio$. It professed to be a dialogue held with a disciple of Ammonius, and to contain the substance of a discussion held at Alexandria with Ammonius himself and one Gessius, a physician. The design of the work is to refute the favourite Platonic doctrine of the eternity of the universe. ("On ov crvva'idios t<£ &e<£ 6 k^o^os, aAAcfc d'fj/^iovpyrif^a, avrov TV7%az/ei), and the occasion which led to its composition was the endeavour of a disciple of Ammonius who had come to Berytus to spread that doctrine, so inimical to the Christian faith. The style of Zacharias is formed very much in imitation of that of Plato. This dialogue was published in Greek and Latin by J. Tarin, in connection with the Philocalia of Origenes (Paris, 1619). It is also to be found in K. Earth's edition of Aeneas of Gaza (Leipzig, 1655). There is also extant a short piece by Zacharias, entitled 'Avrip-pr](TLS Zaxapiov, tiriffKOTrov WLiTV\7]V7)$9 T^y ttcc-pa.\oyiff[jibv tov WlavLxaiov SzeAe^xoutra. The Greek text has not been printed, but there is a Latin translation of it by F. Turrianus in H. Ca-nisii Thesaur. Mon. Eccles. et Hist. Antv. 1725, vol. v. p. 428. Zacharias is also mentioned as having written commentaries on Aristotle. (Cod. BM. Coislin.; comp. Montfauc. p. 598.)
3. Patriarch of Jerusalem; a Latin translation of whose Epistola ad Eccles. Hierosol. de Abduc-tione suain Persidem (a. d. 614) is contained in the BibliotJieca Patrum (vol. xii. ed. Lugd. p. 984).
4. Patriarch of Alexandria, respecting whose synodic letter to Joannes Abdos the reader is referred to Assemann (JBibl. Orient, ii. p. 145, &e.).
5. There are several more ecclesiastics and others of this name, respecting whom the reader may con sult Assemann (1. c.} and Fabricius (Bibl. Gr. vol. x. pp. 635—638). [C. P. M.]