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viii. 1; Phot. Cod. 166.) The Getae believed that the departed went to him. Every four years they selected a man by lot to go as a messenger to Zalmoxis, and tell him what they needed. The mode in which the man was killed is described by Herodotus (iv. 94 ; comp. Clem. Alex. Strom. iv. p. 497). The Pythagorean doctrines respecting the soul spreading in various forms among the barbaric races who came in contact with the Greeks seem to have given rise to this whole fable about Zalmoxis. ^ [C. P. M.]
ZANCLUS (Zay/cAos), a mythical king, and son of Gegenus, from whom the town of Zancle in Sicily derived its name. (Diod. iv. 85 ; Steph. Byz. s. v. Za7/c\i7.) [L. S.]
ZARBIENUS (Zap€i7)v6s), king of Gordyene, made overtures to Appius Claudius, when the latter was staying at Antiocheia, wishing to shake off the yoke of Tigranes. He was informed against, however, and was assassinated with his wife and children before the Romans entered Armenia. When Lucullus arrived he celebrated his funeral rites with great pomp, setting fire to the funeral pile with his own hand, and had a sumptuous monument erected to him. (Pint. Lucutt. 21, 29). [C. P. M.]
ZAREX (Zdpyfy a hero who was believed to have been instructed in music by Apollo, and had anheroumnear Eleusis. Pausanias (i. 38. § 4) takes him to be a Laconian hero, and the founder of the town of Zarex in Laconia. The scholiast on Ly- cophron (580) describes him as a son of Carystus or Carycus, as a grandson of Cheiron, and as the father of Anius by Rhoeo. [L. S.]
ZARZAS or ZARXAS (ZdpCas, Zdpfrs), a Libyan, commander of a portion of the mercenary troops which revolted from the Carthaginians. The rebels being pressed by famine, Zarxas, amongst others, surrendered himself to Hamilcar, and was crucified. (Polyb. i. 84, 85, 86.) [C. P. M.]
ZEGABENUS or ZIGABE'NUS EUTHY' MI US. [euthymius.]
ZEGABENUS, GEO'RGIUS, a Byzantine writer of late date, wrote a work on the seven vowels and the twenty-four letters (Trepi rwv kino. tydovrjtVTwv Ka\ Trepl Toof elKOffirfffffdpocv crroi-XeiW) in verse, which is extant in MS. in the imperial library at Vienna. In the introduction he gives a most lamentable account of his condition, and describes himself as wanting the first necessaries of life. He also wrote and translated some other works, which are mentioned by Fabricius (Btbl. Grace, vol. xii. p. 47, foil).
ZEILAS (Z7//'Aas), son of Nicomedes, king of Bithynia, and Ditizele. In consequence of the intrigues of his step-mother, Etazeta, Zeilas was compelled to take refuge with the king of Armenia. At his death Nicomedes left his throne to his children by Etazeta, to the exclusion of Zeilas, who immediately endeavoured to regain his rights by force. After several battles, fought with various success, he recovered the throne, probably about b. c. 250. He was succeeded by his son Prusias about b. c. 228. (Memnon, ap. Phot. Cod. 224, p. 228, ed. Bekker; Clinton, Fasti Hellen. vol. iii. p. 413.) [C. P. M.] ZELUS (zt]\os), the personification of zeal or
ZENAS (Zrjvas), a sculptor, known by the inscriptions on two busts in the Museum of the Capitol. Miiller states that one of these busts is that of the emperor Cloditis Albinus, and R. Ro- chette says that one of them is that of the emperor Macrinus. Whether, by putting these statements together, we have the subjects of both works, or merely two different opinions respecting one of them, we have not the means of deciding. At all events, Zenas must have lived about the commence ment of the third century of our era. From the occurrence of the name Zrjvas on an inscription of Aphrodisias (Bo'ckh, Corp. Inscr., No. 2768, vol. ii. p. 512) M. Raoul-Rochette thinks it probable- that Zenas may have been a native of that place, at which the name Zenon was also common. [zenon.] The same writer also points out the error of Sillig, who, from the true and a false reading of one of the inscriptions above referred to, as recorded by different authorities, has inserted in his Catalogue two different artists, Zenas and Linaoc. (Miiller, Arch'dol. d. Kunst, § 205, n. 2; R. Rochette, Letlre a M. Schorn, pp. 428, 429, 2nd ed.) [P. S.]
ZENEUS or ZENIS (Zi^erfs, zt^/s), of Chios, wrote a work on his native country. (Athen. xiii. p. 601, f.) As he is only mentioned in this passage of Athenaeus, it has been conjectured that the name may be a mistake, and that we ought to read Xenomedes, who was also an historian of Chios. [xenomedes.] (Miiller, Fragm. Hist. Grace, vol. ii. p. 43, Paris, 1848.) ZENICETUS. [vatia, No. ].] ZENIS. [zeneus.] ZENO. [zenon.]
ZENOBIA, queen of Palmyra. After the death of her husband, Odenathus, about A. D.'266, she assumed the imperial diadem and purple, as regent for her sons, and not only maintained the pomp but discharged all the active duties of a sovereign. She appeared in martial attire at the head of the troops, she shared their toils both on horseback and on foot, she was at once liberal and prudent in the administration of the revenues, strict in dispensing justice, merciful in the exercise of power. But not content with enjoying the dignified independence gratefully conceded by Gal-lienus and tolerated by Claudius, she sought to include all Syria, Asia, and Egypt within the limits of her sway, and to make good the title which she claimed of Queen of the East. We have seen elsewhere [aurelianus] that by this rash ambition she lost both her kingdom and her liberty. Loaded with costly jewels, fettered hand and foot with shackles of gold, she was led by a golden chain, before the chariot of Aurelian, along the Sacred Way, while all Rome gazed, with eager curiosity, on the Arabian princess. Profiting by the clemency of her conqueror, she passed the remainder of her life with her sons [herennianus ; timolaus], after the manner of a Roman matron, in the vicinity of Tivoli, nigh to the gorgeous villa of Hadrian, on an estate which still bore her name when Pollio wrote her history.
One black stain is attached to the memory of