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eompanied by a defence of the historian (Basel, 1576, fol.). The first two books, in Greek, with the translation of Leunclavius, were printed by H. Stephamis, in his edition of Herodian (Paris, 1581). The first complete edition of the Greek text of Zo-simus was that by F. Sylburg (Scriptores Hist. Rom. Min. vol. iii.). Later editions are those published at Oxford (1679), at Zeitz and Jena, edited by Cellarius, with annotations of his own and others (1679, 1713, 1729). The next edition is that by Reitemeier, who, though he consulted no fresh manuscripts, made good use of the critical re­marks of Heyne and other scholars (Leipzig, 1784). The last and best edition is by Bekker, Bonn, 1837. There is a German translation by Seybold and Hey-ler, and also an English and a French translation. (Schb'll, Gesch. d. Griech. Lit. vol. iii, p. 232 ; Fabric. Bibl. Graec. vol. viii. p. 62.)

4. A native of Ascalon, or, according to other accounts, of Gaza. He lived in the time of the emperor Anastasius. According to Suidas (s. v.) he was the author of a Ae'£ts pyTopm}) Kara (rroix^ov (of which Suidas himself made considerable use), and commentaries on Demosthenes and Lysias, some of which are still extant in MS. A life of Demosthenes by him is prefixed to most of the edi­tions of Demosthenes.

5. A native of Thasos, the author of some epi­grams still extant in the Anthology (vol. iii. p. 157, &c., ed. Jacobs).

6. An abbot, whose §ia\oyi(rjj.oi were edited by P. Possinus, in his Thesaurus Asceticus, p. 279. The editor thinks that he flourished in Palestine about a. d. 430.

Several others of this name, not worth inserting here, are enumerated by Fabricius (Bibl. Graec. vol. viii. p. 71,&c.). . [C.P.M.]

ZOSIMUS. The short pontificate of this Ro­man bishop, which lasted from the 18th of March, a. d. 417, until his death on the 26th of December in the following year, was rendered more remark­able by the rash activity with which he plunged into delicate and irritating controversies than by any display of sound judgment or high principle. His attention was first occupied by the represent­ations of Caelestius and Pelagius, who, having ap­pealed to his predecessor Innocentius against what they termed the harsh and prejudiced sentence of the Carthaginian synod, now earnestly demanded a full investigation of the charges preferred against their orthodoxy. Zosimus not only pronounced the complete acquittal of the accused, but inveighed in the strongest terms against the conduct of the African clergy, and published a letter testifying his entire satisfaction with the explanations of Pe­lagius. But scarcely had he given expression to these feelings when a total change was wrought in his sentiments by the edict of Honorius, issued at Ravenna oh the last day of April, A. d. 418. Not satisfied with retracting the praise lavished on the two friends, he hastened to denounce them both as incorrigible heretics, and despatched a circular epis­tle (Tractoria) to convey a formal announcement of this condemnation to all the ecclesiastical authorities in the Christian world.

His next encounter was with Proculus of Mar­seilles, whom, along with Hilarius of Narbonne,



and Simplicius of Vienne, he desired to make sub­ordinate to the see of Aries, at that time occupied by a certain Patroclus, a priest of very doubtful reputation. The bishops of Narbonne and Vienne gave way to a certain extent, or at least did not pe­remptorily refuse obedience, but Proculus, warmly supported by his clergy and people, bade open de­fiance to his commands and excommunications.

Nothing discouraged by this repulse, Zosimus, within a very short period of his death, boldly as­serted his absolute jurisdiction over the African church by reinstating a certain Apiarius, a presbyter of Sicca, who had been regularly deposed for various grave offences by his own diocesan, thus exciting a storm among the fiery Numidians, which must have produced a violent convulsion had the author of the decree lived to follow up this stretch of power by ulterior measures.

Fourteen Epistolae et Decreta of this pope ad­dressed to various bishops and religious commu­nities, chiefly in regard to the events detailed above, have been preserved, together with a few short fragments of the Tractoria, and of some other pieces, all of which will be found under their best form in the Epistolae Pontificum Romanorum edited by Coustant, fol. Paris, 1721, vol. i. pp. 934 —1006, in the BibliotJicca Patrum of Galland, fol. Venet. 1773, vol. ix. pp. 1—20, and also in the Conciliorum ampUssima Collectic of Mansi, fol. Flo-rent. 1760, vol. iv. pp. 348—372.

(See the Prolegomena of Mansi and Galland ; Schonemann, BibliotJieca Patrum Lot. vol. ii. § 12 ; Bahr, Geschiclite der Rom. Litterat. Suppl. Band. 2te Abtheil. §141.) [W. R.]

ZOSIMUS, M. CANULEIUS, a gold and silver chaser, whose skill and probity are praised in an extant inscription. (Gruter, p. dcxxxix ; Sillig. Catal. Artif. App. s. v.) The name is also found on some ancient cameos ; and Raoul-Ro- chette, assuming the identity of the artist, takes this as a new proof that the art of engraving on metals and on precious stones was often practised by the same persons. (Lettre a M. Schorn, p. 158, 2d ed.) [P. S.]

ZOSTERIA (Zuffrypla), a surname of Athena among the Epicnemidian Locrians. (Steph. Byz. s. v. ZwffTj'ip ; comp. Herod, viii. 107.) The mas­ culine form Zosterius occurs as a surname of Apollo in Attica, on the slip of land stretching into the sea between Phaleron and Sunium. (Steph. Byz. I. c.) [L. S.]

ZOTICUS, AURE'LIUS, surnamed The Cook, from the profession of his father, was a native of Smyrna, remarkable for his personal attractions. Having been summoned to Rome by Elagabalus, who had conceived for him a violent affection, he entered the city escorted by a magnificent pro­cession, was received in the palace by the emperor with marks of the most exaggerated respect, and was immediately appointed chamberlain. He speedily, however, fell into disgrace through the arts, it is said, of the rival favourite Hierocles, and was banished. (Dion Cass. Ixxix. 16.) [W. R.]

ZYGIA and ZYGIUS (Zvyia and Zvylos), are surnames of Hera and Zeus, describing them as presiding over marriage. (Hesych. s. v.; comp. hera.) [L. S.]

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